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ending abruptly; once, perhaps, what it now resembles, a lofty promontory encompassed with smooth water.
In the morning we crossed the plain to the foot of the eminence, which we ascended, going toward the body of Mount Messogis. The road up it was stony, and carried over a deep, but dry water-course, by an arch. Then followed broken vaults of sepulchres, and distinct remnants of buildings, all stripped of their marble; standing on a flat covered with corn, trees, fences, and walls. This immediately appeared to me to be the site of Tralles, which had a river or torrent near it called Eudon.
Leaving these ruins, the road, still on the eminence, carried us eastward, and then to the south. We passed by a few cottages, where I inquired for the Charoniuin, thinking we were at Chraca. We soon came to other vaults of sepulchres and ruins, plainly of Nysa; not on a flat. Here we found a large theatre in the mountain-side, with many rov*s of seats, almost entire, of blue-veined marble fronting westward. By the left wing is a wide and very deep water-course, the bed of the river once called Thebaites, making a vast gap into the plain, but concealed in the front of the theatre, where is a wide level area, with soil, supported by a bridge; beyond which, in the hollow, was the stadium, or, according to Strabo, the amphitheatre, with the seats resting on the two. slopes. The bottom of this structure is destroyed, and only some masses of brickwork remain, with some marble fragments by the end next the theatre, where you have a view of the lofty and solid piers, With arches, sustaining the area.. The eminence terminates on each side of the amphitheatre in a precipice. On one side is the ruin of the gymnasium,, and on the other, of the senate-house; by which is. the area* or vacant space of the market. The site of Nysa, as well as of Tralles, was covered with corn, and fences of piled stones. We had from it a delightful prospect of the plain and of the crooked Maeander. Our guide assured us we had now seen all the ruins near Sultan-hissar.
We have described Tralles and Nysa as having one approach from the plain, on the west side of the eminence, where the road dividing leads on the left to Tralles, and on the right to Nysa. This was the only avenue, which required to be defended; and the Turks, it is likely, stormed Trallas after undermining the wall there, or beneath the amphitheatre at Nysa.
The buildings at Tralles, as may be inferred from the remains, were originally composed mostly of stones or pebbles, with cement. Andronicus, as it were, destroyed the city, by rebuilding it. The houses were hastily finished, and old Tralles in good measure demolished by the new settlement; of which the vestiges extant, after five hundred years, are few, besides loose stones and rubbish.
In the year 1403 we find Tamerlane at Sultan-hissar : which fortress was probably erected by the Turks to cut off the communication with the river, or to prevent the Romans from settling again on the mountain.
The ruins on the eminence, though separate, are at a very small distance from each other in a straight line. The distance of Tralles from Magnesia in Strabo is one hundred and forty stadia, or seventeen miles and a half; in Pliny, eighteen miles. Neither of these authors has noted the distance of Nysa from Magnesia; probably because included in that of Tralles. They have also omitted the distance between Tralles and Nysa, as inconsiderable. If the materials and masses of buildings were removed from Tralles, its site would be no longer distinguishable; but at Nysa, the hill will always retain the concavity or figure of a theatre. Nysa is here ascertained by undubitable tokens; and its distance from Guzelhissar or Magnesia is an argument for the proximity, which has been supposed between it and Tralles.*
We set forward again about noon, and riding through Sultan-hissar, came to Nosli-bazar or The Market of Nosli, the town called Nosli-Boiuc or Great Nosli, appearing with white minarets at a distance on our right hand toward the Moeander. This place is supposed to have been Antiochia. We pursued: our journey eastward without stopping.
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Of Antiochia, Coscinia, and Orthosia-^Picenini's route to Nosli —To Jeni-sheir—To Geyra—To Ipsili-hissar—To Laodicea . ^Remarks—Pococke's route to Jeni-sheyr and Geyra— Roads, and distances of places.
Antiochia, though a great thoroughfare, was but a middling city. It had a bridge over the Maeander, and was liable to earthquakes. Its territory, which lay on each side of the river, was large and fruitful, and produced in plenty the figs, called Antiochene and Three-leafed, the same, it is. likely, which are now, as formerly, dried; and which we purchased in these parts, strung like beads, and found extremely good, as well as cheap. In 1176 the town surrendered to theTurks; and in 1198 was in danger from the Sultan oflconhim,, •. r*W > :;i . •?•i;-: •'•••v* yri -. , ,!• .vr.; !>nr h .• •.. * The Tralles of Smith and Wheler is the real Nysa. See also Pococke, p. 67
but escaped by an accident. In 1206 it was besieged by the Turkish army, and relieved by Lascaris, emperor of Nicea. This region had besides two places, beyond the Maeander, worthy of notice, Conscinia and Orthosia; the latter afterwards an episcopal see. A stream running from Coscinia toward Alabanda was remarkable for its windings.
Picenini and his companions left Gussel-hissar at five in the afternoon, and at nine came to a hut called Chiosek or Chiauskui. The next morning they set out at six, and at eight Teached Sultan-hissar. Soon after they passed through a village called Homerkioi, in the way to the town of Nosli, where they arrived at eleven. They were pleased with the civility of the Turks, with the three mosques, the houses, and the neatness of the streets.
From Nosli these travellers went eastward through the plain; and, after about four hours, stopped on the banks of the Maeander, which river they crossed the next morning, and then in an hour saw an old castle called Jeni-sheir upon a hill, with arched caves or vaults at the foot. They ascended to it, having passed a rivulet named Gengere, and found besides thick walls, built with small stones, a few fragments of columns. From these ruins, returning eastward, they had a fine view of the Maeander in the plain below, and found there a lion carved in white marble, the head and hind parts missT ing, the back inscribed with the word oAoc, The way, which shews it was designed as an index for passengers.
Leaving the Maeander behind, they went on, more to the south in a vale almost uncultivated; and at noon halted by some mills near the source of the rivulet which they had repassed; and arrived, after two hours more, at Geyra, distant twenty hours from Guzel-hissar. There they met with many ruins and inscriptions; and of the latter copied near a hundred.
From Geyra, going eastward and sometimes northwardly, among hills, they came to a lofty mountain, which they ascended by a rough track amid thickets and pines. Narrow valleys succeeded, and after four short hours they reached Ipsili-hissar, a castle on a pointed hill within the mountain, and two hours, as they were told, from the Maeander. They found there about fifty Turkish cottages and a mosque, by which were three inscriptions, with a few other remains.
Their road lay again through narrow valleys. After two hours they thrice passed a rivulet, called Hagi-sic, remarkable for winding like the Maeander, into which it runs; and after three hours came to Gerelikioi, a pleasant village about a short hour from that river. Going four hours more, eastward, among pleasant hills and vales, they arrived at Laodicea.
It seems probable that Jeni-sheir was anciently Orthosia, and that the vaults or arches are remains of sepulchres; and also, that Ipsili-hissar was Coscinia, and the winding rivulet, that is mentioned as running toward Alabanda. The inscriptions, which they copied, proved Geyra to have been Aphrodisias, a place ranked by Strabo among the smaller towns, lying round about Laodicea and Apamea. Some of them have been published by Chissul; but many more, equally worthy the attention of the learned, are preserved in a manuscript, which was Lord Oxford's, now in the British Museum.
Pococke* reached Jeni-sheir by a different route; going