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We shall conclude this chapter with an account of the ancient route through Caria and Ionia, as preserved, with the order of the places and their distances, by Strabo. On the way to Ephesus from Physcus, which was on the continent of Asia opposite to Rhodes, you came to Lagina, distant eight hundred and fifty stadia, or one hundred six miles and a quarter ; then to Alabanda, two hundred and fifty stadia, or thirty one miles and a quarter; then to Tralles, one hundred and sixty stadia, or twenty miles. The Mæander was crossed about midway between Alabanda and Tralles, where were the boundaries of Caria; and the whole distance from Physcus to the river was eleven hundred and eighty stadia, or one hundred forty seven miles and a half. From

the Mæander to Tralles the distance was eighty stadia, or ten miles; then to Magnesia one hundred and forty stadia, or seventeen miles and a half; then to Ephesus one hundred and twenty, or fifteen miles ; to Smyrna three hundred and twenty, or forty miles; to Phocéa and the. Ionian boundaries, less than two hundred, or twenty-five miles. Thus the extent of Ionia was a little more than eight hundred stadia, * or one hundred miles. The most common road to the East from Ephesus, as has been mentioned before, was by Antio. chia, and from thence to Carura, seven hundred and forty stadia, or ninety-two miles and a half; and then through Laodiceat and Apamea, called Cibotos.

* Strabo gave also the extent of the coast of Ionia, with its windings; but the passage is imperfect, p. 632. It is much lessened, since his time, between Ephesus and Posidium.

+ In Peutinger's table, the distance between Carura and Laodicea is xx miles ; but the numbers can seldom be relied on.

Peutinger's, or the Theodosian table, is a most curious relique of antiquity. If tbe Antonine Itinerary, and the many distances of places and the different routes to be found scattered in various old authors, were carefully compared with it, most of the present difficulties would be removed; the true readings would be restored, the authority of the respective numbers would be ascertained, and ancient geography receive a considerable and very useful improvement. For an account of Peutinger's Table, see p. 115. Acta Lipsiensia for the year 1753.


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17.1817 3943 ,318i 111117 Our journey continuedThe Asian meadow-We cross the MeanderCaruraRuin of a bridge_A hot spring. 3 251 vf pels

DISHI OU 111 BMK 10 jaar ... The road, which we took from Sultan-hissar, was that which anciently led to Carura and to Laodicea in Phrygia, without passing through Antiochia. We met on it many passengers, and mules, and long strings of camels. The ground was dry, the soil fine, and covered with corn, with fig and olive trees. Our course was a little north of east. After five hours we pitched our tent. A summit of the mountain, on the south-side of the Mæander, or of Taurus, which was opposite to us, had snow on it. On our left was a rising ground beneath the hilly range of Messogis, with a large village; and on the level in the front were many deep wells, each furnished with a tall pole supporting a long lever, from which hung a rope and a wooden bucket to raise water for the caravans.

::iniSU!sy lumiti aikaista asia 1171 Mount Messogis, beyond Nosli-bazar, becomes less wide and lofty than before, and is over-topped by Mount Tmolus. I observed a remarkable gap in the range of Messogis, opening a view into a green plain, at some distance on our left hand. I wished to explore this pleasant region ; but our route was settled, and the sudden changing it might have been attended with inconveniencies, if not with danger. That was the place, if I mistake not, called Leimon, or The Meadow, which is described as lying above Mount Tmolus, and the southern parts of Messogis, thirty stadia, or three miles

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and three quarters from Nysa. The inhabitants of this city, and all around it, held there a general assembly. They said: it was the Asian meadow of Homer; and shewed the monument of Asius, and also of Çayster, with the source of the river named from him ; and not far off was the mouth of a cave sacred to Pluto and Proserpine, supposed to communi. cate with that at Characa. Besides these objects of inquiry, the traveller may, it is likely, discover a castle in this tract; for we read that the grand duke Roger, after defeating the Turks, condemned the governor of the fort of Ași on the Mæander for deserting it.

At seven in the morning we pursued our journey eastward, the mountains now projecting, and the plain getting narrower. At half after ten we pushed on to a coffee-shed by the road-side ; a sudden gust of wind, from black clouds in the west, driving before it a thick dust, which was followed by a furious shower in our backs. The brooks swelled, and in the afternoon ran down with noise to the Mæander. We tarried near three hours, and then set out for a ferry, which we were told would save us an hour. We arrived at it in three hours and a half. The current was strong and muddy, the float old and heavy, but we crossed in a minute and a quarter.

We now approached the site of Carura, anciently a village with khans or inns for travellers ; in one of which a large company, while revelling, had been swallowed up by an earthquake. It was remarkable for surges or eruptions of hot waters, in the river, or on its margin ;* and was the boundary of Caria toward Phrygia.

* Strabo, p. 578. See Pausanias, p. 241.


Riding along the bank of the river, we discovered the ruin of an ancient bridge. The remnant was on the farther side, and consists of half of the central arch, with one smaller arch entire. This bridge was probably broken before the year 1244 ; when an interview being agreed on between the emperor of Nice and the Turkish sultan, the latter passed the river, in his way to Tripolis, on a temporary bridge made of rafts for the occasion.

The existence of Carura, it is likely, was determined by the loss of the passage. We saw no traces of that place ; but, going near the ruin, one of our horses turned short, which led us to observe a vein of hot water boiling up out of the ground, like a jetté, some inches perpendicular, and forming a small quagmire. We now enter Phrygia.

bo bolo pood CHAP LXVI. Wh Our journey continued-Temple of Men Carus--DenisliThe

Turks uncivilized-Arrive at Laodicea-Our tent beset

Our janizary seized--Behaviour of an aga--Thieves--The 1 weainer: weather.

W CONTINUING our journey, we lost sight of the river; the plain widened again, and was cultivated, but not inclosed, as before. Messogis was now of a chalky aspect; and the mountain on our right green with trees. We saw a few scattered booths of Turcomans. At four our course inclined to east-south-east. We observed many jays, and upupas, and a beautiful bird, like a hawk, with blue glossy plumage. We had travelled eight hours and three quarters, when we pitched our tent by a village under a summit covered with snow.

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