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The following day our course was as before, the river not in view. The sun shone very comfortably, and the melted snow ran in dirty rills down the slopes. On the way some stones and vestiges of a building occurred; perhaps of a temple once between Carura and Laodicea, called that of Men Carus,* and held in high veneration. In Strabo's time a great school of physicians fourished there. The same author has mentioned a temple of Men Asæus or Arcuæs, also in Phrygia. The priesthood, which was dissolved, had possessed a multitude of consecrated servants and holy places. In Armenia was a temple of Men Pharnaces, of vast sanctity; the village resembling a city. The priest received the revenue arising from the sacred servants and territory. These, with another or two, noted by Strabo, were likewise temples of Selene. The deity worshipped in them was, it seems, that called by the Romans Lunus and Luna, or the Moon. We arrived at Denisli in four hours.

Denisli is fortified by an ordinary wall, which incloses a few cottages, and resembles Segigeck. The gateway, on our approach, was crowded with men and boys. Our janizary and Swiss tarried there to purchase provisions and other necessaries, while we dismounted in a meadow at a small distance, expecting their return. Our baggage-horses were scarcely unloaded, when both rejoined us; the Swiss complaining, that the Greeks understood only the Turkish language, in which he was not expert; the other to inform us, we were required by the owner of the ground to change our conác or resting-place. We removed to a tree, under which we dined, by a muddy stream, and were wetted by a smart shower.

* Strabo, p. 580. See p. 557. 577. 503.


We had lately perceived an alteration in the carriage of the Turks; who, in the interior regions, seldom see strangers, and are full of ferocity. A general want of cordiality toward us had been apparent, and some trifling insults we had received on the road were forerunners of more inconvenient incivilities. Some Turks here told us, we had no danger to apprehend on this side of the plain; but if we proceeded to Pambouk on the farther side we must be cautious, for the Turcomans in that quarter were robbers and murderers.

We set out again for Eski-hissar or Laodicea, then distant an hour northward, the way between hills. A Turk, whose dress and mien bespoke him above the common rank, overtook us; and, our men inquiring, courteously directed them to a commodious situation for our tent, which we pitched in the evening in a small rising, on the edge of the plain, by the junction of two streams.

We were in general very much fatigued, and about sun-set day down to rest; an Armenian or two watching our horses, which were staked and grazing by the tent. Some time after it was dark, we were suddenly surrounded by armed men, conducted by the Turk, who had recommended this spot. Their business was to demand bac-shish for their aga. They pryed into our baggage, prancing their long-tailed horses, and threatening, if they were not immediately gratified. We were too soundly asleep within the tent to be easily awakened. The Swiss, shaking the relater by the hand, informed him of the quality and importunity of these unwelcome visitants. He was bid to tell their chief, that the aga should be satisfied in the morning; and the janizary urging, that the hour was unseasonable, and that we purposed stay

ing, they were prevailed on to depart, taking him with them to pacify their master.

At the dawn of day a Turk was sent to observe if we were stirring, and the janizary set out with our firhman, and a present of coffee, sugar, and money ; but the aga declared, he would have at least an hundred and thirty piastres; and Mustapha, pleading our firhman, and presuming to remonstrate, was seized, disarmed, and thrown into prison. In the meantime we were very uneasy at the tent, presaging no good from his long stay. After some hours we saw him coming without his gun, pistol, or sabre; terrified and dejected. He exclaimed, we were among rebels and robbers ; that the roads were beset to prevent our escape, and the aga, if we hesitated to comply with his demand, was determined to cut us in pieces, and take possession of our baggage.

The janizary described this aga as uncommonly fierce and haughty, and bade us apprehend the very worst consequences, from his intemperance and savage disposition. The impression made on him was communicated to our Armenians, and we all disliked our situation. After a short consultation, I gave him twenty zechins, affirming truly, that we had no money to spare, but might want even that sum before we reached Smyrna. He ventured back, with some reluctance, into the presence of the aga, who was prevailed on to receive it, but with difficulty; and then inquired about our firhman, which he before had refused to hear named. The janizary returned to him again with it, and, after it had been read, he refunded nine of the zechins ; believing, as he was told, that we belonged to the English ambassador, and were going from Smyrna to Constantinople ; and fearing we might complain


there of his behaviour. He now said he would be responsible for our safety.

As soon as this business was adjusted, we began to examine the site of Laodicea, which was close by us. On the first day, we were attended by one of the aga's men, a mean, illlooking fellow, who required a piaster, his pay, and in the evening left us. The janizary who, by that time, had slept away his fatigue and chagrin, went back with him to the village, about an hour distant, for his bridle, which had been exchanged for one of no value. We were visited at our tent, during our stay here, by several of the natives, and Turcomans, who manifested so savage and bad a disposition, that our men established a regular watch. They stole our pipes, and took even earthen bowls; a species of petty larceny, which exceedingly distressed some of our company.

The Mæander, running between the hill of Laodicea and Mount Messogis, divides the plain, which there becomes narrow. Our view eastward was terminated by mountains not very remote. The summits on the south and south-east were covered with snow. From the first quarter we had a very sharp piercing breeze at the dawn of day; and from the latter, as soon as the sun was risen. At noon the atmosphere was smoky, the sky hot and fiery: and then cloudy, with showers. It thundered in the north and north-west. We experienced, as it were, winter and summer in the space of twenty-four hours.



Of Laodicea-The amphitheatre-An inscription-A ruin-

The odeum-Other remains, and two theatres -The hill The rivers Modern history of Laodicea.

The city Laodicea was named from Laodice, the wife of its founder Antiochus, the son of Stratonice. It was long an inconsiderable place, but increased toward the age of Augustus Cæsar, after having suffered in a siege from Mithridates. The fertility of the soil, and the good fortune of some of its citizens, raised it to greatness. Hiero, who adorned it with many offerings, left the people his heir to more than two thousand talents. After that benefactor followed Zeno, the rhetorician; and his son Polemo, as renowned a sophist as ever lived. This person flourished at Smyrna: but was buried here, by the Syrian gate, near which were the sepulchres or coffins of his ancestors. Laodicea, though inland, grew more potent than the cities.on the coast, and became one of the largest towns in Phrygia. The other was Apamea Cibotos.

We had crossed the hill, on which Laodicea stood, coming from Denisli. On our approach to it, we had on either hand traces of buildings; and on our right, of a low duct, which has conveyed water. The first ruin was of an amphitheatre, in a hollow, the form oblong, the area about one

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