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after visiting many towns, and fertilizing with its slime the fair plains, smoothly entered the sea ; which perhaps once washed the foot both of Celænæ and of Signia. The river was navigable a considerable way above the mouth, and one Melesander is recorded as having gone on it with his ships into the Upper Caria. Its eels were much prized by the ancient epicures ; and its banks were remarkably clothed with tamarisks.

The people of Apamea, though inland, were worshippers of Neptune. The reason, it has been conjectured, was, that they had suffered often from earthquakes, of which he was supposed the author. Mithridates gave a hundred talents toward the restoration of the city; which, it is said, had likewise been overthrown in the time of Alexander. Their tribute-money was remitted to them for five years on the same account, under the emperor Tiberius. The subterraneous passage of the Lycus, and the other streams, shewed that the ground had many cavities ; and these, it has been surmised, rendered the region very liable to be shaken. Be tween Laodicea and Apamea was a muddy lake of salt water, which had a private vent : and the name Celænæ had been interpreted to denote the colour of the stones, and the blackness occasioned by fiery eruptions.*

Xerxes on his expedition into Greece, came by Celænæ and the salt lake, to Colossæ and Cydrary, where was the boundary of the Lydians and Phrygians. He then entered Lydia,

* Strabo, p. 579. The reader, if curious concerning the Apamean medals treated of by the author of an Analysis of Ancient Mythology, may receive satisfaction from consulting Museum C. Albani, v. 1, pl. 49. p. 99. and Museum Florentium, v. 4, pl. 76, and v. 6, p. 149.

and the road dividing, the left branch leading into Caria, the right toward Sardes, took the latter; on which it was necessary to pass the Mæander. Laodicea did not then exist, but, it is probable, he marched by the site, as his route to Sardes appears to have been nearly the same with that which we shall pursue, after leaving Hierapolis, and recovering the main road from Laodicea westward.


Picenini's journey to Chonos To Pambouk-Pococke's journey to Chonos--Remarks--Pococke's journey continued-Dinglar, ApameaIshecleh, Celana.

The reader may be introduced to a farther knowledge of the region, which is the subject of the preceding chapter, by an extract from the diary of Picenini, and from the travels of an author, by whom its ancient geography is greatly mistaken.

Picenini, with his companions, set out from Laodicea, and proceeded two hours, when they passed through a pleasant wood of tall trees; and, after three hours more, came to a village called Chonos, which has been supposed Colossæ. It stands under a very high and almost inaccessible hill, the cottages on the steep or acclivity, from which they had a view over the plain from the east to the south-west. Here they found the Greeks ignorant of their own language. Their church, which was in the castle on the hill, resembled a wine-vault. Their papas or priest was of Cyprus, and had the care of about forty families, of the same progeny as the, Turks.

Leaving this place at ten in the morning, and passing a river, they saw soon after, for the space of a mile, pieces of columns, ruined inscriptions, and other remains; and also, several irregular winding channels, with a current, as they conjectured, of mineral water. Then directing their course more to the west, in three hours they came to a river and a planetree; and, going on, in less than an hour and a half had Pambouk in view on their right hand.

Pococke set out from Denesli, and, going to the north-east, passed by a large stream called Sultan Emir, which he supposes the Cadınus, running near that corner of the mountains, from which the hills of Laodicea begin, and falling into the Lycas about a league to the east of that place. He crossed this river at a bridge by an old khan, called Accan, well-built, of white marble from some ancient ruin. Mount Cadmus turns here to the east, and continues about six miles. At the northern foot of it is a rock, where Soley Bey commonly resided, and had eleven pieces of cannon for his defence; and a village underneath, which is that supposed to be Colossæ. All over the plain were small channels for water, then dry, incrusted like those of Pambouk.

Chinos seems to have had the same affinity with Colossæ* as Denesli with Laodicea: a papas or priest at Philadelphia informed me there were about two hundred Greek families. The river, which Picenini passed on leaving Chonos, was probably the Lycus; and the ruins, which succeeded, the remains of Colossæ. The other river must have been the Mæander. Pococke does not distinguish between Chonos and Colossæ. He has mistaken the Lycas for Cadmus ; and the Mæander, as several other travellers have done, for the Lycus.

Pococke continued his journey eastward from Chonos ; when a little farther on, the hills ran for about two leagues to the north, and then turning toward the east again, were the southern boundary of a fine vale about one league wide, and four long. On the south side of these hills are waters, like those of Hierapolis, incrusting the slope with a white petrification ; and on the opposite side are other hot waters. He came to the foot of the high hills on the north of this vale, where was an encampment of Turcomans, and crossed over the woody mountain to the north-east to a village, where he passed the night. He went on in this small plain, which leads on the north-west into the great plains of the Mæander, where the river runs along on the west-side for about twelve miles, and then goes in between the hills. He describes the Mæander as running to the west, at the distance of eight miles from the north end of the plain, and as turning south from near the west side.

We are now, with Pococke, not far from the junction of the Marsyas with the Mæander ; for he mentions a plain uniting with this and extending to the east, about two leagues wide and four long, with a high hill and a village called Dinglar at the east end, where he was told a river rises, and falls down a hill from a lake at the top; and where, as he was informed, are ruins. Dinglar, if I mistake not, was Apamea; which place, it is to be noted, was on the way from Laodicea to the east. There was The Cataract of the river Marsyus, which rose some miles distant on the road leading to Phrygia.

Pococke went on, over the Mæander, where it crosses the large plain, to a village on the north side; and the next day, after travelling eight miles, came to a town, called Ishecleh, under the hills, which are at the north end of the plain ; beneath one, which is very high and steep, and has on it some remains of an ancient fortress. In the town were many pieces of pillars, and wrought stones, and imperfect inscriptions; but it is most remarkable for its delightful situation at the sources of a river now called Ochieuse, which rises at the foot of the mountain in eight or nine streams. Some of these are large, and very clear; and all, he relates, soon unite, and run through the plain into the Mæander. He supposes the two rivers at Ishecleh and Dinglar to be fourteen miles apart. The plain between the two places, of which the former was once, I think, evidently Celænæ, is bounded to the north and south by high hills. This, it seems, was Aulocrene. In it is a river called Bourabasha, which falls into the Mæander, and is by Pococke supposed to be the Orgas..


We are embroiled at Hierapolis-Retire to our tentFljFord

the Mæander-Our conac, or resting-place-Booths of the TurcomansRuins of Tripolis-Its historyArrive at Bullada.

. We are now to relate the occasion of our sudden departure from Hierapolis. While we were busy at the theatre, the aga of a village eastward came to bathe with a considerable retinue, and two of his men summoned our janizary to appear before him. He was sitting beneath a wall, in the shade of the large ruin ; and among the Turks with him were a couple, whom we had treated on the preceding day with coffee. He alleged, that we had knowledge of hidden

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