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ness. The surface of the plain, which is now turf, was then spread with "ashes ; and the range of mountains was stony and black, as from a conflagration, which soine, who fabled that Typho was destroyed there, supposed to have been occasioned by lightning; but earth-born fire was concerned, instead of the giant and Jupiter. This was evident from three pits, which they called Physæ, or The Bellows, distant from each other about forty stadia, or five miles, with rough hills above them, formed, it was believed, by cinders from their volcanoes. The wits of old, observing such places peculiarly fertile in vines, affirmed, aluding to the story of Semele, it was no fiction that Bacchus was begotten by fire.*

The river Hermus, which divides this plain, began near Dorylæum, a city of Phrygia; rising on the mountain Dindymus, which was sacred to Cybele, the mother of the gods. From this region it flowed into the Sardian, and received the Phrygius, which separated Phrygia from Caria; and also many other streams from Mysia and Lydia, in its way to the sea.

In the morning we descended from the mountain, and winding toward the left, soon after met a cow laden with the dwelling, the goods, and chattels of a Turcoman family ; a very grotesque and risible figure. A woman followed, trudging on foot, with a child at her back, her naked breasts hanging down before her. In half an hour we crossed a stream rising near, and running eastward ; and then passed by a spot, where a number of the Turcomans were loading their camels, and busied in removing their booths, their wives, children, and cattle. The plain was cultivated We entered the ca

* Strabo, p. 576. 626. 628.

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ATTALUS Philadelphus, brother of Eumenes; was the founder of Philadelphia, which stood on a root of Mount Tmolus, by the river Cogamus. The frequent earthquakes, which it experienced, were owing to its vicinity with the region called Catakekaumene. Even the city-walls were not secure, but were shaken almost daily, and disparted. The inhabitants lived in perpetual apprehension, and were always employed in repairs. They were few in number, the people residing chiefly in the country, and cultivating the soil, which was fertile.* to attade baboon od pillowbaci

John Ducas, the Greek general to whom Laodicea submitted, took Philadelphia with Sardes by assault, in 1097. It was again reduced, about the year 1106, under the same emperor, without difficulty. Two years after, the Turks marched from the East, with a design to plunder it and the maritime cities. In 1175 the emperor Manuel, falling into an ambuscade of the Turks, not far from the sources of the Mæander, retired to this place. In the division of the conquests of sultan Aladin, in 1300, the inner parts of Phrygia, as far as Cilicia and Philadelphia, fell by lot to Karamân. The town in 1306 was besieged by Alisuras, who took the forts near, and distressed it, but retired on the approach of the Roman army. It is related, that the Philadelphians despised the Turks, having a tradition, that their city had never been taken. The Tripolines requested succour from the general, the Grand Duke Roger ; who, after defeating the enemy, returned hither, by the forts of Kula and Turnus, and exacted money. In 1391 Philadelphia singly refused to admit Bajazet; but wanting provisions was forced to capitulate. Cineis, on his reconciliation with Amir, prince of Ionia, drew over to his interest, this place, with Sardes, Nymphéum, and the country as far as the Hermus.

* Strabo, p. 579. 628.

It was anciently matter of surprise, that Philadelphia was not abandoned, and yet it has survived many cities less liable to earthquakes, and continues now a mean, but considerable town, of large extent, spreading up the slopes of three or four hills. · Of the wall, which encompassed it, many remnants are standing, but with large gaps. . The materials of this fortification are small stones, with strong cement. It is thick and lofty, and has round towers. On the top, at regular distances, were a great number of nests, each as big as a bushel; with the cranes, their owners, by them single, or in pairs. The bed of the Cogamus, which is on the north-east side, was almost dry. The French traveller, Paul Lucas,* has mistaken this place for Laodicea.

Going a little up the Cogamus, between the mountains, in the bank, on the right hand, is a spring of a purgative quality, much esteemed and resorted to in the hot months. It tasted like ink, is clear, and tinges the earth with the colour of ochre. Farther up, beyond the town, on the left hand, is the wall, which, it has been said, was built with human bones, after a massacre, by one of the sultans. That wonderf is nothing more than the remnant of a duct, which has conveyed water of a petrifying quality, as at Laodicea. This incrusted some vegetable substances, which have perished, and left behind, as it were, their moulds. It was now partly fallen, but served as a fence between two corn fields. The whole is much decayed, the pieces easily breaking and erumbling. .

* Vol. 1. p. 306.

The bishop of Philadelphia was absent, but the protopapas or chief priest, his substitute, whom we went to visit, received us at his palace, a title given to a very indifferent house, or rather a cottage, of clay. We found him ignorant of the Greek tongue, and were forced to discourse with him, by an interpreter, in the Turkish language. He had no idea that Philadelphia existed before Christianity, but told us it had become a city in consequence of the many religious foundations. The number of churches he reckoned at twenty four, mostly in ruins, and mere masses of wall decorated with painted saints. Only six are in a better condition, and have their priests. The episcopal church is large, and ornamented with gilding, carving, and holy portraits. The Greeks are about three hundred families, and live in a friendly intercourse with the Turks, of whom they speak well. We were assured that the clergy and laity in general knew as little of

+ See Rycaut--and Woodward's Catalogue of Foreign Fossils, p. 11.

Greek as the proto-papas ; and yet the liturgies and offices of the church are read as elsewhere, and have undergone no alteration on that account.

The Philadelphians are a civil people. One of the Greeks sent us a small earthen vessel full of choice wine. Some families beneath the trees, by a rill of water, invited us to alight, and partake of their refreshments. They saluted us, when we met; and the aga, or governor, on hearing that we were Franks, bade us welcome by a messenger.

Philadelphia possessing waters excellent in dying, and being situated on one of the most capital roads to Smyrna, is much frequented, especially by Arinenian merchants. The khan, in which we lodged, was very filthy, and full of passengers. Mules arrived almost hourly, and were unladen in the area. As a caravan goes regularly to Smyrna, and returns on stated days, we were uneasy here, and afraid of infection. The accounts now given us of the plague, and of the havock it was making, were such, that the most intrepid person might reasonably shudder with horror and apprehension.

We set out at nine in the morning from Philadelphia for Sardes, distant twenty eight miles, according to the Antonine Itinerary. The way is by the feet of Mount 'T'molus, which was on our left; consisting of uneven, separate, sandy, hills, in a row, green and pleasant, once clothed with vines, but now neglected. Behind them was a high ridge covered with snow. The plain, besides the Hermus, which divides it, is well watered by rills from the slopes. It is wide, beautiful, and cultivated ; but has few villages, being possessed by the Turcomans, who, in this region, were reputed thieves, but not given to bloodshed. Their booths and cattle were

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