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After resting a while, we were conducted toward Tmolus, and suddenly struck with the view of a ruin of a temple near us, in a most retired situation, beyond the Pactolus; between the hill of the citadel and the mountain. Five columns are standing, one without the capital; and one with the capital awry to the south. The architrave was of two stones. A piece remains on one column, but moved southward; the other part, with the column, which contributed to its support, has fallen since the year 1699. One capital was then distorted, as was imagined by an earthquake; and over the entrance of the naos, or cell* was a vast stone, which occasioned wonder by what art or power it could be raised. That fair and magnificent portal, as it is styled by the relater,* has since been destroyed; and in the heap lies that most huge and ponderous marble. Part of one of the Antae is seen about four feet high. The soil has accumulated round the ruin ; and the bases, with a moiety of each column, are concealed; except one, which was cleared by Mr. Wood. The number in the front, when entire, was eight. The order is Ionic. The shafts are fluted, and the capitals designed and carved with exquisite taste and skill.

It is impossible to behold, without deep regret, this imperfect remnant of so beautiful and glorious an edifice; which however is, I believe, unnoticed by the ancient authors now extant. Herodotus mentions a temple dedicated to Cybebe, or Cybele, as damaged in the conflagration of Sardes by the Milesians. The same goddess is invoked in Sophocles-f- as inhabiting by the great Pactolus, abounding in gold. Crae

» Chishull's Travels, p. 16. + Philoctetes, v. 390.

sus, king of Sardes, contributed to the building of the temple at Ephesus, where a similar mass of marble was placed over the entrance by Metagenes; and if this fabric be not coeval, it was perhaps planned and erected by some of the successors of that bold and enterprizing architect.

CHAP. LXXVI.

The road to EphesusOf LarissaThe region called Asis HyparpaBirgheThe road from Pergamum to Sardes.

In the preceding chapter we have mentioned an expedition of the Milesians against Sardes. The distance of this city from Ephesus was five hundred and forty stadia, or sixtyseven miles and a half; and the historian, Herodotus, who relates their enterprize, reckons a day's journey one hundred and fifty stadia, or eighteen miles and three quarters. The way to Ephesus was over Tmolus, which is described as a compact mountain, of a moderate extent, having its boundaries in Lydia.

On a summit of Tmolus was a watch-tower erected by the Persians, of which perhaps the ruin is still extant; an Hexedra, or building with six sides or seats, of white marble. From it were beheld the adjacent plains, and in particular that of the Cayster; in which was Larissa, an Ephesian village, once a city; the soil fruitful in vines. There was a temple of Apollo, and Strabo mentions a priest of Jupiter of Larissa as his contemporary, and a man of eminence at Tralles. The site was nearer to Mount Tmolus than to Ephesus, from which place it was distant one hundred and eighty stadia, or twenty-two miles and a half. It was thirty stadia, or three miles and three quarters from Nysa, lying above that city; the way to it through Messogis, probably at the gap beyond Nosli Bazar, and by the temple of Mater Isodrome, or Cybele of the Plain. This district, in which the Cayster rises, is likely to afford the curious traveller some ruins, with much pleasure and satisfaction. The Cilbianian plain was contiguous with it eastward, and was large, fertile, and well inhabited.

The tract between the mountains Tmolus and Messogis is a portion of the region named Asis, in which was the meadow, mentioned in a preceding chapter. This is celebrated by the ancient poets as the resort of innumerable geese, cranes, and swans. You might hear them, sitting on Tmolus in the spring; or see them feeding in the grass; arriving in vast companies, and settling; or flying away, and making the Cayster and the marsh resound with their noisy clamour.* The marsh is now perhaps dry.

At the foot of Tmolus, descending toward the Caystrian plain was the small town, Hypaepa, where the Persians of Lydia had a temple served by priests called Magi. Pausanias relatesthat he saw there an altar with ashes on it, differing in colour from common ashes; that the priest entered the cell, and heaped dry wood on the altar; that he then put the tiara or sacred fillet round his head, and invoked the deity, chanting from a book, in a barbarous language, unintelligible to the Greeks; when the fuel lighted spontaneously ^ and a clear flame was produced. The same won

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der was also performed at Hierocaesarea in Lydia, at the temple dedicated by king Cyrus to the Persian Diana.*

Hypaepa is now called Pyrge, and corruptly, Birgh6. It is probable a fortress with towers (rivpXoi) was erected there to command the pass of Mount Tmolus, and occasioned the disuse of the old name. Pyrge was one of the places, which suffered from the exactions of the grand duke Roger, general of the Roman armies in 1306. Thither, in 1403, the body of Amir was removed from Ephesus, or Aiasaluck, to be buried in the sepulchre of his ancestors; as in 1422 was that of Mustapha, Atin's grandson, who had been killed in battle by Cineis.-j- The town has two very handsome mosques.

We shall add here the route to Sardes from the plain of the Caicus and the city Pergamum,^ which, is thus described by Strabo: "On the east is the city Apollonia seated on an eminence; and on the south a ridge of mountains. Passing over this, and going toward Sardes, Thyatira is on the left;

* Tacitus, 1. 3. C. 62. On a medal of this place the goddess is represented, with a quiver, the Legend JTEPCIKH, or The Persian; and on the reverse is an altar, with a fire on it. A very forced explication of this plain Legend is given in the notes on Pliny. 1. v. c. SI.

t Modern Univ. History, v. 5. p. 149. 177. The place is here called Pyrga, and fort Pirgion near M. Tmolus. See also p. 187.

% In Peutinger's Table. In the Antonine Itinerary.

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and on the right, Apollonis, distant three hundred stadia, or thirty seven miles and a half, both from Pergamum and from Sardes. Then follows the plain of the river Hermus and this city."

CHAP. LXXVII.

ChishuW's journey to Birghe'To TyriaTo EphestaAccount

of Tyria.

We shall give here an abstract of Chishull's journey, in 1699» from Sardes to Ephesus.

The ascent of Tmolus is made easy by windings or traverses. The mountain is pleasant, and garnished with an infinite variety of plants, shrubs, and trees. Besides a fine prospect of the country, the traveller is amused with impending rocks, perpendicular precipices, and the murmurs of a brook, probably the Pactolus. On the top, which he gained in four hours, was a fruitful vale, between two lofty ridges; with a vein of marble as clear and pellucid as alabastar. It was the latter end of April; but snow remained on the summits, and supplied a rapid current descending into the Pactolus. The air was chilled, and vegetation retarded. The trees, which, with a kindlier aspect, were green and flourishing, had "not even budded there. After an hour, he entered a stony track, leading down the southern side of Tmolus. This was steep and dangerous, or tedious with windings; but adorned with bright and shining particles resembling gold dust. In five hburs he arrived at Birghe.

On the way to Ephesus, our traveller forded the Cayster,

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