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as a guide. The author, it is imagined, believed, as other travellers had done, that this was the site of Troy, or of a more recent city named Ilium, instead of Alexandria Troas.

Confusion cannot easily be described. Above the shore is a hollow, overgrown with trees, near which Pococke saw remains of a stadium or place for races, sunk in the ground; and higher up is the vaulted substruction or basement of a large temple. We were told this had been lately a lurkingplace of banditti; who often lay concealed here, their horses tied in rows to wooden pegs, of which many then remained in the wall. It now swarmed with bats; much bigger in size than the English, which on our entering, flitted abo'it, innumerable ;^and settling, when tired, blackened the roof. Near it is a souterrain; and at some distance, vestiges of a theatre and of an odeum, or music theatre. These edifices were toward the centre of the city. The semicircular sweep, on which their seats ranged, is formed in the hill, with the ends vaulted. Among the rubbish, which is of great extent, are a few scraps of marble and of sculpture, with many small granite pillars.

The principal ruin, which is that seen afar off by the mariners, commands a view of the islands of Tenedos and Lemnos; and, on one side of the plain to the Hellespont, and of the mountains in Europe. Before it is a gentle descent, woody, with inequalities, to the sea, distant by computation about three miles. It was a very ample building, and, as we supposed, once the gymnasium, where the youth were instructed in learning and in the exercises. It consists of three open massive arches, towering amid walls, and a vast heap of huge materials. They are constructed with a species of stone, which is full of petrified cockle-shells, and of cavities, like honey-comb. The latter, it is likely, have occasioned the name used, as Pococke relates, by the peasants, Baluke Seria,* the palace of honey, which he thinks may be derived from Baal. The piers have capitals and mouldings of white marble, and the whole fabric appears to have been incrusted. Some remnants oftthe earthern spouts or pipes are visible. A view of it, which belonged to Mr. Wood, has been lately published.* On one side is a ruin of brick ; and behind, without the city wall, are sepulchres. One of these is of the masonry called reticulated, or netted.

A city distinguished, and flourishing by Roman favour, would not be tardy in paying the tribute of adulation to its benefactors. The peasant shewed me a marble pedestal inscribed in Latin, the characters large, plain, and well-formed. We found, near this, two other pedestals, one above half buried in rubbish, but the Turks cleared the front with their sabres to the eighth line. All three were alike, and had the same inscription, except some slight variations. They had been erected by different cities in honour of Caius Antonius Rufus, flamen or high priest of the god Julius and of the god Augustus. A maimed trunk, which we saw, was perhaps one of the statues; and it is probable the basement, before noted, belonged to the temple dedicated to the deities whom he served, or to the goddess Rome. These marbles are about midway between the principal ruin and the beach. A Venetian officer afterwards informed us, that he had removed one of them on board his ship, then in thegulph of Smyrna, by order of the captain, while they lay at anchor near Tenedos, waiting for the bailow, whose time of residence at Constantinople was expired. We made diligent search for inscriptions, but discovered, besides

* See Essay on Homer " Ancient ruins near Troy," &c

the abovementioned, only a small fragment of a pedestal, on which the name of Hadrian occurs.

An aqueduct begins behind the city, not far from the sepulchres, and is seen descending and crossing the country on the side next the Hellespont, extending several miles. The piers, which we measured, are five feet nine inches wide; three feet and two inches thick : the void between them, twelve feet and four inches. The arches are all broken.

The history of this noble, and once useful structure, affords an illustrious instance of imperial and private munificence. An Athenian, Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes, presided over the free cities of Asia. Seeing Troas destitute of commodious baths, and of water, except such as was procured from muddy wells or reservoirs made to receive rain, he wrote to the emperor Hadrian not to suffer an ancient and maritime city to be destroyed by drought, but to bestow on it three hundred myriads of drachms for water, especially as he had given far greater sums even to villages. Hadrian readily complied, and appointed him overseer of the building. The expense exceeded seven hundred myriads,* and it was represented to the emperor as a grievance, that the tribute from five hundred cities had been lavished on one in an aqueduct. Herodes, in reply, begged him not to be displeased, that having gone beyond his estimate, he had presented the overplus of the sum to his son, and he to the city.

We shall have occasion to mention Atticus Herodes again, and his name will occur often in the account of our travels in Greece. His grandfather, Hipparchus, had been accused of tyranny, his estate confiscated, and his son, Julius Atticus, re

* Five hundred myriads amount to 161408/. 6s. Id. English.

duced to poverty. Julius discovered a treasure in one of the houses, which belonged to him, by the theatre at Athens. The quantity was so great, that his apprehension exceeded his joy, and he wrote to Nerva the emperor, desiring to know his pleasure concerning it. Nerva replied " use what you have found and, on afresh application, " abuse if you will, what Mercury has given you." Julius, thus possessed of unexpected affluence, married a wife with a vast dowry. His riches were inherited by their son, Atticus Herodes, who was born at Marathon, carefully educated under the most eminent masters, and became so famous for learning and extemporary eloquence, that perhaps no sophist ever surpassed him in brilliancy of reputation. He was raised to the first dignities of Athens, and to the consulate, with Torquatus, at Rome, in the year of our Lord one hundred and forty three. His generosity equalled his wealth, and was as extensive as noble. Many temples were enriched by his magnificent offerings. His costly buildings adorned Asia, Greece, and Italy. Statues were erected to him, and the cities vied with each other in extolling their common benefactor. Several of them still retain monuments of his splendour, and records of his liberality.

The Christian religion was planted early at Troas. In the beginning of the fifth century, the bishop Silvanus, was required to deliver a vessel from a daemon, which was believed to detain it, as it could not be launched. It was intended for transporting large columns, and was of great size. Going down to the beach he prayed, and taking hold of a rope, called on the multitude to assist, when the ship readily obeyed him, and hurried into the sea.* But the churches have been so long demolished, that the traces of them are uncertain.

* See Scozomen vii. 37. Socrates. 1. i.

F

The desolation of this place was begun, and probably completed, before the extinction of the Greek empire. Many houses and public structures at Constantinople have since been raised with its materials. We found only a few inconsiderable remnants of white marble by the principal ruin, where formerly was a vast heap. Some pieces in the water by the port, and two large granite columns, were perhaps removed to the shore to be ready for embarkation. The magazine is yet far from being; exhausted. The name Troas was not become obsolete in the year 1389.

CHAP X.

An accidentAt the vineyardIn want of provisionsAre joined by the owner of the vineyardIn fear of banditti.

We were employed at Troas chiefly in taking a plan and two views of the principal ruin. We dined under a spreading tree before the arcade; and on the second day had just resumed our labour, when we were almost reduced to fly with precipitation. One of the Turks, coming to us, emptied the ashes from his pipe, and a spark of fire fell unobserved in the grass, which was long, parched by the sun, and inflammable like tinder. A brisk wind soon kindled a blaze, which withered in an instant the leaves of the bushes and trees in its way, seized the branches and roots, and devoured all before it with a prodigious crackling, and noise, and with a thick smoke; leaving the ground black, and the stones hot. We were much alarmed, as a general conflagration of the country seemed likely to ensue. The Turks with their sabres cut down

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