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boughs, and we all began buffetting the flames, which were at length subdued ; the ruins somewhat retarding their progress, and enabling us to combat them more effectually. The struggle lasted above an hour, and a considerable tract of ground was laid waste. Close by was an area with dry matted grass, where no exertion could have delayed the fire, but in a moment it would have acquired the mastery, and must have ravaged uncontrolled, until repelled by the wind. The janizary signalized his prowess in this engagement. The sun shone exceedingly hot, and we were all covered with smoke and smut.

In the evening we returned to the vineyard, and found our cook, with two or three of the Turks, busy in a hovel, roasting a kid on a wooden spit or stake. We sate down with our Jew and janizary, and the flesh proved excellent. Our table was a mat on the ground, beneath a spreading vine. Our men formed a like group at a little distance from us. Soon after we fell asleep, and the starry heaven was our canopy.

Early in the morning the ass was loaded again. We passed the day at the ruins, with some discontent from keen appetites, not duly gratified. The wine and provisions, which we expected from Tenedos, did not arrive in time; and the peasant, whom we had sent to a village named Chemali, could procure only a couple of fowls, with some eggs, which he broke in bringing. This accident compelled our Jews to fast, their law not permitting them to eat of what we had, and which supplied us with a very scanty meal.

After completing our survey as well as the prudent caution of our Jew and Turks would permit, we returned to the vineyard, where we now found the owner, a man with a venerable beard. We conversed with him, our Jew serving us as an interpreter. He was a stone-cutter, and shewed us a pestle and mortar as specimens of his abilities; with a mutilated head of a female statue; a piece of load-stone, and a parcel of ordinary copper coins, among which was a small medal of the emperor Trajan, with a horse feeding on the reverse, the legend coL. AVG. and on the exergue TR . A or Colonia Augusta Troas. He had also a stone of a ring, of a red colour, in

Δ Η scribed MhTPI of Demetrius,; and a brown one, with a lion tearing a bull.

Both our jew and janizary had expressed more than once a diffidence of our safety. Our fire arms had been all regularly inspected; and this evening in particular our men betrayed plain symptoms of uneasiness and apprehension, which we imputed to some intelligence of banditti not remote from us, given them by our new companion.


Invited to ChemaliWe set out on footThe hot-baths- Arrive at ChemaliRemains of antiquity-Once Colona.

When we lay by the sea-side, we had observed a fire blazing on an eminence before us, or toward Lectos. We were told, it was a signal for a boat designed to be laden clandestinely with corn, the exportation of which is prohibited under severe penalties. One of the men had approached and viewed us with a degree of attention, which we disliked; the people of this district bearing a very bad character. At midnight the aga of Chemali, who was concerned in this contraband business, had come prancing along the shore with two Turks, armed, on long-tailed horses, to inquire who we were. The janizary entertained him apart by the fire with a pipe and coffee, after which he mounted and gallopped back, leaving us an invitation to see an old building at his village. Our host informed us, that by the way were hot baths worthy our notice, and that Chemali was distant about two hours. This mode of computing by time prevails universally in these countries, and is taken from the caravans, which move an uniform pace, about three or four miles in an hour.

In the morning after breakfasting on grapes, figs, white honey in the comb, and coffee, we set out in a body for the village, a Turk or two remaining with the boat, and our janizary, whose right eye was inflamed, at the vineyard. We entered a narrow track worn by camels, the sand deep and loose; and saw several of these animals single, lying down, feeding with their burthens on their backs, or moving pensively in a long train, the leader mounted on a low ass; and also a flock of goats, and a few sheep and oxen. We came to a river, which winds from the deep valley behind Troas, and has been mentioned before. The stream here was now shallow, but abounding in small fish. It had overflowed nearer the sea, and formed a little marsh.

The hot spring rises in the slope of the hill of Troas, about four miles from the shore ; its bearing 30". south of west. The bed resembles rusty iron in colour, and the edges were incrusted with white salt. After running a few paces, it enters a basin about nine feet square, within a mean hovel roofed with boughs. This is the bath appropriated to women. In a gully there, Farenheit's thermometer rose to one hundred and thirteen. The current passing from hence, unseen, is admitted by channels into another basin. In this the thermometer rose to one hundred and ten; and in two small veins to one hundred and thirty, and forty two. It was before in the air and shade at eighty two. The water has the colour of whey ; the taste is brackish ; and this quality it communicates to the river below. We supposed it to be strongly impregnated with iron ore. One of the basins was choked up in 1610; and not long ago, we were told, the spring had entirely disappeared, for nine years, after an earthquake. It is reckoned very efficacious in the rheumatism, the leprosy, and all cutaneous disorders. They first scour the skin by rolling in the bed of the river, which is, a fine sand, and full of holes or cavities, like graves, made for the body. By each inclosure is a shed, where they sleep after bathing. In the court-wall of one is inserted the trunk of a large statue ; and higher on the hill are the ruins and vestiges of the ancient sepulchres of Troas.

We crossed the river again, and in fifteen minutes entered among the roots of Mount Ida, which hitherto had been on our right hand, but now faced us. We had an extensive view of the country, and from one summit the pike of Tenedos bore 30m west of north. The tops of the mountain are innumerable. New ones arose continually before us, as we advanced ; and low oaks and bushes are interspersed among the vast naked rocks. Coming near Chemali we saw several wind. mills; Turkey wheat standing ; and, on the slopes of the hills, a few vineyards. The men were at work abroad, but the doorways of the clay-cottages were filled with women, their faces muffled, and with children looking at us. Our men purchased of them some melons, with eggs, which they fried in oil.

The mosque, which we had taken this long walk to examine, instead of proving, as we had hoped, some ancient buildingor temple, contained nothing to reward our labour. The portico, under which we stopped, is supported by broken columns, and in the walls are marble fragments. The door is carved with Greek characters so exceedingly complicated that I could neither copy nor decipher them. We supposed it had forinerly been a church. In the court was a plain chair of marble, almost entire; and under the post of a shed, a pedestal, with a moulding cut along one side, and an inscription in Latin, which shews it once belonged to a statue of Nero, nephew of the emperor Tiberius.* Many scraps of Greek and Latin occur in the old burying grounds, which are very extensive. We saw more marble about this inconsiderable village, than at Troas.

Colonæ, The Hills, was a town on the continent opposite to Tenedos. Antigonus removed the inhabitants to Troas, but the place was not entirely abandoned. It seems to have recovered under the Romans, and has survived the new city ; still, as may be collected from the site and marbles, lingering on in the Turkish village Chemali.

CHAP. XII. Coast by TroasEnekioi-Giaurkioi or Sigéum-Antiquities at

the church-Account of SigéumThe famous Sigean stone part of a pilaster--The disposition of the lines on it-Of the Greek alphabet-Age of the first inscription-Age of the second-It lies neglected.

From Chemali we returned to the vineyard, purposing to embark as soon as possible; the danger from banditti increas

* Inscript. Ant. p. 4.

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