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ties, plates, and other like necessaries; and hired a janizary, with two grooms and a cook, Armenians. One horse carried . our baggage. We set out on the 30th of September, and were absent until the 29th of October. The weather, which had favoured us, then became rainy and bad, but soon changed again to mild and agreeable.
The happy temperature of the climate of Ionia in general, has been much favoured by the ancients. At Smyrna, the houses, except those erected by the Europeans, have seldom chimnies or fire-places in the rooms. In cold weather it is usual to place a pan of charcoal beneath a table, over which a carpet, or handsome counterpane is spread, the sides reaching to the floor. This is called a tendour. The family sit round, warming their legs and hands under the cover.
As winter advanced, the sky, which in summer is most remarkably clear, and serene, varied; and we had alternately sunshine and rain. Southerly winds chiefly prevailed, bringing clouds on the mountains, from which proceeded thunder and lightning. The showers renew the verdure, which, in the middle of December, was as fine as ever I saw, with marigolds and anemonies, springing spontaneously from the turf beneath the olive trees, in great profusion. At the same time thickets of myrtle in blossom adorned the waste; and in the gardens the golden fruit glittered among the deep-green leaves of the orange trees. The southerly quarter is warm as well as wet; but the flowers, which it produces, instantly droop and wither before the northerly and easterly winds. These in summer are hot, coming over parched plains and naked mountains exposed to the sun; but at this season are extremely bleak and penetrating, and bring snow on the distant hills; that or sleet rarely falling in the champaign country or valleys. The north-east is often attended with heavy rain, without thunder. In the coldest day we felt, our thermometer was at forty nine; but in December the sun at times was powerful, and the air sultry: and, once in that month, the same thermometer rose to eighty in the shade. We had plenty of daffodils and hyacinths. Early in February the almond trees blossomed, and roses and carnations were common, and sold about the streets. Upon the whole, we enjoyed, except some few intervals, an azure sky, with exquisite softness, such as cannot be described.
A company of cranes, returning from their winter quarters, flew in orderly array over Smyrna, on the ninth of March, northward. Another soon followed, and then many; some by day, when they are seen changing their figure and leader; some by moon-light, when they are heard, high in air, repeating their noisy signals. At the same time the bees were observed to be in motion. These were regarded as sure signs that winter was at an end, and as foretelling settled weather.
I had begun early to prepare for another journey, and studied to remove, or remedy, as far as possible, the inconveniencies we had before experienced, by providing a tent and increasing the number of our attendants and horses. It was thought proper not to move until the Ramazan or Lent of the Turks, during which they are often sour and churlish, was over; and the general change or re-appointment of the governors, which is made in March, had taken place.
A rumour, that the plague had appeared in Smyrna, was current, but not credited; it often happening that such stories ax-e propagated to serve a private purpose, or to distress the trade of a rival factory. It was now again asserted, that a person was ill or dead of the disease; and an English ship left the bay only half laden.
We had agreed, on the 13th of March, to leave Smyrna on the 21st. On the 18th we were informed, that our janizary was unwilling to go then; bairam, or the Turkish holidays beginning the next day; but was ready to set out with us either before or two days after. We then fixed on the 25th. Between the 17th and 20th we were assured, that four or five persons more had been attacked by the plague, imported, it was said, from Musconisi, or from Tino, in which islands and in Scio, it was well known, the distemper had resided for some time. These accidents disconcerted us exceedingly, and seemed to threaten a final period to our expedition.
It may be imagined that, during our abode with the consul, the plague had been a frequent topic of our conversation. We were told, this season seldom passed without some appearance of it; that often the malady did not spread, or was partial, and of short duration; that it was communicated only by contact with some person or thing infected; and that the Franks, who are accounted less liable to receive it than the people of the country, continue, unless it be very general, their business and recreations as usual: but on the other hand, the approaching holidays both of the Turks and Christians, made it not improbable that the contagion would be carried to and fro, and that it would soon extend over the whole city and its vicinity. We had before us personal danger, and the apprehension of a tedious and disagreeable confinement, not without its perils, if we remained at Smyrna, or in Asia. In such situations as these, even extreme timidity scarcely deserves censure. Among other expedients, it was proposed to pursue the general plan of our voyage by crossing over to Athens, and returning in autumn, when the plague should have ceased; but this measure too had its risks and inconveniencies; and, at length, as the places suspected were only Smyrna and Pergamo, after due deliberation, we resolved to proceed on our intended journey.
We quitted the consul's house on Monday, the 25th of March, O. S. 1765, attended by a Swiss, and some Armenian servants, with a mule and horses carrying provision—chests, utensils for cooking, our tent, bedding, and other requisites; all together forming a very motley caravan or procession, headed by a janizary. The Frank families had then shut, up, as it is termed, or had retired into the country, for security from the infection. We did not return to Smyrna until the 8th of August.
Some occurrences, which will be related, made it prudent to contract this journey within a much narrower outline than was previously designed. The former falling in with it, and both together completing our survey of these parts, as far as we found practicable, we shall unite them in our narrative; this method enabling us to follow nearly the course of the country: beginning with the latter, which was the most extensive, and marking their mutual coincidence, with the different seasons, in which they wrere performed.
Sea-coast of Ionia—Vourla reputed Clazomene—The olive' groves—Vestiges of an ancient bridge—The Agamemnonian hot baths—Their present state—Isthmus of the peninsula— The dike cut by Alexander—Villages—The toxm of Vourla.
The sea-coast of Ionia extended from Phocea and the Hermus, southward to Posidium, a promontory of the Milesians, and to the Carian mountains. The shape was irregular, it abounding in bays and peninsulas. The cities were all originally maritime; their number on the continent ten, besides Smyrna; their situation as. uncommonly fine as their climate. It has been said of this region, that it boasted temples, such as were possessed by no other country, and many wonders hardly exceeded even in Hellas or Greece.
The city of Ionia, next to Smyrna, was Clazomene. As this place was within the gulf, on the south-side, and the distance anciently reckoned only twelve miles, we supposed the site known to the people of Smyrna, and the modern name to be, as they informed us, Vourla. We resolved therefore to begin our second journey with that town, distant by computation six hours; hoping, if the plague did not cease at Smyrna during our absence, we might at least escape its fury; and expecting to obtain security and satisfaction, in proportion as we removed from the seat of infection, and of its sure concomitant, mortality.
We set out from Smyrna at eight in the morning, on the 25th of March, and passing through the loAver portion of