« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Page 244, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Confer stultitiam tuam cum patris sapientiâ; meum peccatum cam Dei bonitate contuli; parva cum magnis conferam; malorum tuli molem; malorum moles a me lata est; gigantes sustulisse montes feruntur; quid ferat dies mihi est incertum; aequo animo fer laborem; ne omnia ad tuum commodum refer; quod auri, quod argenti habui abstulit hostis; caritate subtatâ, sublata est omnis domi jucunditas; vitiumne naturae meditatione potes tollere? ne
fidem et vitae societatem tollas.
Page 244, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
He who wishes his virtue to be published, labours not for virtue but glory; do not poets wish to be celebrated after death? I, an old man, do not wish for the same things as I wished for (when) a youth; love if thou desirest to be loved; we must enjoy the good of the mind (mental good) if we wish to be happy; he is teachable who is willing to listen attentively; all benefits wish to (should) be placed in the light; if you are willing to be earnest and diligent, you will often find great instruction in little things; you ought to make him attentive whom you wish to make teachable; thus let us live with an inferior as we would wish a superior to live with us; well did Socrates say that this was the readiest way to glory, for every one to make it his object to be what he wished to be accounted; whoever shall wish to gain true glory, will be under an obligation to discharge the duties of virtue; we are unwilling to grow weary in preserving good men; men do not like that the same person should excel in many things; do not take seriously what I may have said in jest; I am free in my judgment, and in no way bound by a necessity of the kind, that, whether I will or not, I must maintain my opinion unchanged; Socrates refused to be conducted out of prison when he might easily have been; I would rather be Phidias than the best carpenter; do you prefer that the strength of your body or of your mind should be increased? one person wishes to excel in one virtue, another in another; to those with whom it is a fixed determination to prefer nothing to being good men, every other lesson is easy; woe to you who rather pursue riches than virtue; we prefer being content with little with virtue, to having much without virtue; Aristides, the Athenian, preferred being to appearing good.
Page 244, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Sapientes esse volunt; virtutem quam divitias habere malunt; in luxuriâ excellere nolis; in virtute excellere volo; visne mecum ambulare? mallem hunc librum legere; domum ire voluerunt; quod dicere voles nolet audire; optimos legat libros si quis doctus fiere vult; eundem scientiam divitias et potentiam habere nolunt homines; scientiam quam divitias malim; sapiens quam dives esse malo; pauci sapientiam quam potentiam malunt.
THE TRAVELLERS AND THE Ass.
Two persons who were journeying together having observed an ass wandering in a desert place, ran toward it in joy, and each began to claim it as his own because he was the first to see it. But while they contend and dispute, and even fall to blows, the ass escapes, and neither of them gets possession of it.
THE RAVEN AND THE WOLVES.
A raven required from the wolves a part of their booty because he had accompanied them all the day. To whom (in reply) they "You have not followed (sectatus) us but the game, and that with this intention, namely, not to spare our bodies if they should be wearied out."-In actions it is proper to consider not what is done, but with what intention it is done.
THE SHEPHERDS AND THE Wolf.
Some shepherds having killed a sheep, were enjoying a feast. When a wolf saw this, he said: "Poor me! if I had carried off a lamb, what a noise would have been made." Then one of the shepherds replied: "Yes, and with reason, for it is our own not another man's sheep that we feed upon."
between them. The peace being established, the hawks turned their strength against the doves.-This fable shows that the disagreements of the powerful are often of service to the weak
Page 260, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Those who come to us at an unseasonable time are often troubleswallows depart in the winter months; a mortal body must at some; we pass over many things which lie under our eyes; it? however, more often the guilty perish; all men ought to strive some time perish; the innocent sometimes perish; who can deny with their utmost power not to pass their lives in silence (sloth); who can doubt that a great man may arise out of a cottage? audacity and rashness must be opposed late rather than not at all; in joy all the citizens went to meet the soldiers who were returning home from war; if it had been so arranged by nature that men in their sleep should do the things which they dream, all who went to bed would have to be put in bonds; the ancients were deeply convinced that there is feeling in death, and that man, on departing from life, is not so blotted out as to perish utterly; Themistocles sought a narrow pass to prevent his being surrounded by the enemy; Romulus was thought to have gone to the gods; Augustus died in the seventy-sixth year of his age; I never could persuade myself that minds live while they are in mortal bodies, but when they have departed from them, die; all past time has perished; when I return from the country I will forthwith visit thee; Pompey, and many other famous men, perished shockingly; go whither the fates call thee; Hercules has gone to the gods; never would he have gone, unless he had prepared the way for himself while he was among men; a very deep sea washed the walls of the towers of the city.
Page 260, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Intempestive ad me venerunt; haud intempestive ad avunculum ibo; librum ante oculos positum transii; boni moriuntur, non pereunt; nunquam peribunt boni; quis dubitat quin magni e casis viri exire possint? ne vitam in silentio transeas tibi sit curae; turpitudini obviam eundum est tibi; urbem adierunt; quum redierint, tuam ad domum venient; Romulus ad deos transisse dicitur; anne credis Romulus ad deos transisse ? parentibus obviam ituri sunt liberi; ne circumeatur curat dux; ne militum multitudine circumeatur urbs vereor; irent; issent; ibo; ibisne? patre redeunte, domum adibat; ivissem; domum mihi eundum est; a patre meo eundum est obviam civibus; cubitum iturus sum; me iturum esse cubitum haud scis? cubitum iverunt.
Page 261, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN
We are unable to look at the sun; this is the force of what is becoming, that it cannot be sundered from what is honourable; laughter sometimes breaks forth so suddenly that we are unable to restrain it though desiring so to do; say whether you can go with me or not; when the enemy were unable to put our army to the rout, they betook themselves into their fortified camp; when the general was unable to hold back the soldiers by prayers, he resolved to make use of force; often unskilful physicians make unable to pronounce the letter r, he succeeded by practice in ulcerous what they are unable to cure; when Demosthenes was becoming able to utter it very distinctly; reflect that an enemy may become a friend; no one becomes good by chance; if all things happen by fate, nothing can admonish us to become more cautious; no one has become immortal by sloth; it makes a very great difference whether an injury has been done through a certain disturbance of mind which is for the most part brief, or inten tionally and advisedly; what a man sees frequently he does not admire, though he is ignorant by what means it is produced; we have not been produced by nature so as to appear made for play and joke (jocum), but rather for seriousness and for certain grave and important pursuits; thou becomest wise as old age approaches; I deny that there is such a thing as fortune (chance), and I say that from all eternity all things that are and all that will be are foreordained by fate; on what account did you say, that all things which are, or which will be, are held bound by fate; it may happen that a person may think correctly, and yet be unable to utter elegantly what he thinks.
Page 261, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Solem adversum intueri nequeunt homines; virtutes ita inter se junctae sunt ut separari nequeant; saepe risum, quamvis velimus, nequimus retinere; die utrum queas an nequeas nobiscum ire;
A trumpeter being taken by the enemy, said: "Do not slay me, for I am unarmed, nor have I anything except this trumpet." The enemy replied: "On that very account we will put thee to death, because, being unskilled yourself in fighting, you are accustomed to incite others to battle."-The fable shows that not only evil-multi sunt morbi qui sanari nequeant; rhone dicere Demosthenes doers should be punished, but also those who stir up others to do
THE HAWKS AND THE DOVES.
The hawks at one time waged deadly war on each other. The doves, trying to bring them back to friendship, effected a peace
potest? rho dicere nequeo; exercitatione ut rho dicere queam fore spero; disce diligenter si doctus fieri vis; ex amico inimicus saepe fit; nec boni mali casu fiunt homines; si fortuna cmnia fierent, inutilis esset prudentia; ignaviâne ullum inmortalem fieri putes? senectute sapientiores fiunt homines; incerti erant aliqui philosophi omniane fato fierent; nihil fato fieri mihi est persuasum.
Some mice once held a council as to how they should avoid the
bell to her neck; for so they being warned by the sound, would be After many proposals, it was unanimously resolved to hang a able to fly from her. But when the question arose as to who should fasten the bell on the cat, no one offered himself.-The fable teaches that many are daring in advice but timid in the crisis of action.
Page 307, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
To do right is the interest of all; it thunders without lightning by night rather than by day; and now it began to grow light and all things were under (their) eyes; all things are becoming known; it grew dark and they knew not the road; I am weary of your talk; what does it matter to us that Antony has been conquered? when now it had grown dark; O my mother, I am sorry for thee, I am grieved for myself; it much concerns a teacher that his scholars should apply to learning with the greatest zeal; I am greatly concerned to see thee; how suddenly, how swiftly, how terribly it thundered; the corn is not cut down before the frost came; it rained milk; to live happily is every one's interest; we have it written in our archives that it is impious to hold the national assembly while it thunders and lightens; it snowed arrows, balls, and stones; it will rain to-day, I think; all that time during which (quo) it rains and snows; it is a rainy day; sometimes it snows; let us go, the day already dawns; there are men who are neither ashamed nor wearied of their lust; Pompey himself is weary and very sorry; I am ashamed and grieved at myself; I am indeed grieved and ashamed at my brother; it is the part of a sage to do nothing of which he can have to repent; when Alexander had killed Clitus he could scarcely keep his hands from himself, so great was his sorrow; as if it were not only proper but necessary that it should be so; there are things which, even if lawful, one ought not to do; add, if you will, velocity; what pleases you pleases me.
Page 277, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Those things are opposites of which the one (alterum) affirms (what) the other denies; Cato declared that he wondered that the soothsayers did not laugh when they looked at each other; a sow, as they say, teaches Minerva; thou affirmest, I deny; Epicurus denies that any one who does not live honourably can live happily, as if I cared as to what he affirms or denies; this I seek to know, namely, what it is suitable for him to say who thinks the highest good (of life) to be in pleasure; whether you affirm or deny this, I shall maintain my (meam) opinion; things that deny are the opposites of those which affirm; dost thou say (ain) so? when you have laid open and brought to light the most hidden things, will you deny that there is any other thing that can be known? dost thou say yes? I say yes; dost thou deny? I deny; the husbandman plants trees which may be of service to another age, as says the speaker in Menander's Comedy; we do not believe, you say, those things to be true which we say; but thou, thou sayest, wilt never be troublesome to me; is not my friend, you will say, a handsome man? well has Plato said that he is happy whose lot it is to be able, even in old age, to learn the opinions of sages and true opinions; we will remember that even towards the lowest justice must be observed; the mind remembers past things, discerns present things, foresees future things; he ought to remember benefits on whom they have been conferred, and (he ought) not to make mention of them who has conferred them; always bear that in mind; the sage who is unable to do good to himself, is wise to no purpose; I will remember what you have so well said to me; those who remember the benefits received from their native land, will always be ready to take up arms on behalf of its safety; remember to die (death); all hate him who is unmindful of a favour; it cannot be that I should not hate the enemies of liberty; the envious hate another's virtue and happiness; virtue must of necessity spurn and hate things contrary to itself; the good we love, the bad we hate; I doubt not that the wicked hate me; a dire and abominable speech, "Let them hate provided they fear; " Cicero thoroughly hated Clodius; a judge ought not to favour any one, nor to hate (any one), nor to be angry (with any one); we ought not to love in such a way as if we were likely sometime to hate; the Romans Meorum peccatorum me poenitet; vitae eum taedet; vitaene thoroughly hated the name of kings; a good beginning is half the eum taedet? illos vitae non taedet; omnium hoc interest; tuâ ac undertaking; oracles vanished when men began to be less meâ hoc interest; nostrâne interest? sermonis nostri eos taedet; credulous; after riches began to be accounted honours, and glory vesperascit; pluit; pluitne? grandinat; fulgurat; tonat; pluet [insert comma] command, power followed them, valour began to totum per diem; ningit; pluit sanguinem; abi domum, nam vesdecline, and poverty to be held a disgrace; it is shameful to finish perascit; libidinum eos poenitet; fratris tui me piget; Alexandrum ill a thing well commenced; they began on all sides to throw stones interempti Cliti amici poenituit; te tuorum peccatorum oportet against the wall; they began to besiege the city; he worships who poenitere; omnium interest benefacere; matrem meam poenitet knows God; nothing seems to me more foolish than to think him et taedet; curritur; ridetur; ignaviaene tuae te poenitet? illos whom thou knowest not thy friend; he who knows himself will feel ignaviae poenitet; benefacere mihi lubet; libetne tibi legere that he has something divine, and will always do and aspire to some-librum? patrem matremque amare est decorum; turpe est mentiri; thing worthy of 60 great a favour from God; let every one pursue illud te fallit; melius est mori honeste quam turpiter vivere; hocne the art with which he is familiar.
Page 277, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Page 307, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS AND QUERIES. Solution of the question about Bacchus and Silenus, p. 224, col. 1, in which is a misprint for .
Quod tu ais id ego nego; quum aio, ait, quum nego, negat; reliquisti, aiunt, urbem; utrum aias an neges ignoro; aientia negantibus sunt contraria; pater tuus, aiunt, Romam redibit; dulce et decorum est, inquit Horatius, pro patriâ mori; nunquam molestus, inquis, mihi est amicus; beneficiorum collatorum obliviscaris, beneficiorum acceptorum memineris; tui absentis meminero; si beneficiorum a parentibus in nos collatorum meminerimus, nunquam erga eos erimus ingrati; quamdiu doctorum meorum bonam doctrinam memini, me occupat desiderium illorum praestantium virorum; qui immemores sunt beneficiorum odimus; quis est qui non oderit libertatis inimicos? cur non oderint ignoramus; fortes amant homines et ignavos oderunt; non dubito quin me mali the following proportion : oderint; non est mihi gratus amicus qui ita amat ut si aliquando osurus sit; regium nomen perosum esse Romanis constat; infelix est quem oderunt omnes boni; rem bene coepisti sed finivisti male; vix milites munire castra coeperant quum hostes sunt visi; jam hostes expugnare urbem coeperant, quum repente nostri milites civibus auxilio succurrerunt; an tu noris amicum meum ignoro;
amares amicum meum si novisses.
THE FOX AND THE GRAPES.
A fox seeing a bunch of grapes on a vine, jumped up at it with all her might, hoping to be able to reach it. Worn out at length with the fruitless effort, she departed, saying: "Well, they are yet sour, and I would not pick them up if I met with them in the street." This fable shows that many despise those things which they despair of attaining (assequi).
THE FOX AND THE LIONESS.
A female fox reproached a lioness with the fact that she produced only one cub at a birth; to whom she is said to have answered: Yes, one, but that one is a lion."-This fable shows that not the oundance but the goodness of things should be estimated.
Let x and y denote the number of hours which Bacchus and Silenus respectively take to empty the cask. Then, by the question, y is the time during which Bacchus drank while Silenus was asleep; now denoting the whole cask by unity or 1, we have 2y ; the fourth term of y::1: 3x which is the part of the cask which Bacchus drank while Silenus 2y was asleep. Subtracting this from unity, we have 1 for the 3x remaining part of the cask which Silenus drank when he awoke; 2y and consequently we have the proportion, 1 : 1 3x 212 3x
the fourth term of which is the time which Silenus took to drink the remainder of the cask.
But had they both drank together, Bacchus would have drank 2y a part denoted by half of
2) or; and, of
course, Silenus would have drank a part denoted by 1
3/ y2 2
1 : + : :y: + ; the fourth term of which is the
time that Silenus took to drink his part; but as they both drank
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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
A HAND-LOOM WEAVER,-Pronounce Bλakevel Bla-keu ci, or as if it were spelt in English Black-yu-i.
JOHN A. TOWNSEND.-The inscription is not correct Latin. We must therefore decline attempting to translate it.
UN PROLETAIRE.-We regret the omission of the letter in the Greek alphabet, especially as it is much more frequently used than, the other form of the letter which we have given. In the separate lessons this will be corrected.
C. H. F.-The short o in German is pronounced like o in the English word gone, and the long o like the same letter in go. A vowel before two consonants in German is short.
THOS. HALLAM (Manchester): The right method of pronouncing Greek is an antiquarian, not a grammatical question.
W. D. (Leicester). The subjects he has chosen, though passably executed, are rather too difficult for a young beginner; he should copy the lessons in Drawing in the P. E., for some time before he attempts these again.-JOB HIGTON (Plaistow-green): His penmanship is very good; and if well acquainted with English, Arithmetic and Bookkeeping, we would advise him to stick in for a clerkship first and then a Bookkeeper's place. He may then ascend the hill of science at his leisure.-W. WILSON (Cheadle): The construction of a sentence, is simply the putting of a sentence together.AMICUS (Spofforth), should study some book on Gauging; as to the rest, we do not know.-T. H. STAR (Bell's Hill): See Brewster's Optics, or the small treatise on Optics in the Library of Useful Knowledge.-H. ARMSTRONG (ton): See the Map of America and the Lessons on Geography in the P. E.-IGNORAMUS: It should be the coach has arrived; see the Lessons in English, in the P. E.-AGRICOLA (Hatfield): The chemical constituents of the potato are starch or farina 15, fibrous matter .06, albumen .01, extractive matter 01, and water .77.-BETA KOMEDOS (Portsmouth): On the Greek word logos, see p. 104, col. 2, vol. II., of the P. E. Two of the new Greek chracters he has sent us are contractions, the one for ou and the
other for os. The transposition of the first two lines of Homer's Iliad, given by Walker, is in Pope's Homer, the following:
"Achilles' wrath, to Greece, the direful spring
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LESSONS IN GEOGRAPH Y.-No. XXX.
MAP OF POLYNESIA.
POLYNESIA, as the name implies, signifies many islands, and consists of New Zealand and the numerous smaller islands which are found scattered here and there, in groups of various forms and sizes, over the vast expanse of the great Pacific Ocean. With the exception of New Zealand, which lies in the South Temperate Zone, by far the greater part of the Polynesian groups lie within the Torrid Zone; but the whole of Polynesia is included in a zone extending in Lat. from about 30° N. to about 50° S., and in Long. from about 130° E. to about 100° W., forming a basin whose breadth is about 5,600 miles, and whose greatest length is about 9,000 miles. The principal groups contained in this basin are the New Zealand group, consisting of two large islands, a smaller one, and several islets; the Auckland Islands, the Chatham Islands, the Friendly Islands, the Hervey Islands, the Society Islands,
New Leinster; otherwise, they are denominated the North,
As to the inlets of the sea in this group of islands, which nearly correspond to the antipodes (i.e., people whose feet are exactly opposite to ours, when they stand on the surface of the earth) of Great Britain, there are the Bay of Islands, the Gulf of Hauraki, the Bay of Plenty, and Hawke's Bay, on the east coast of North Island; in Cook's Strait, east side, are Palliser Bay, Port Nicholson, and the Harbour of Porirua; and west
the Austral Islands, the Low Archipelago, the Marquesas Islands, the Samoa or Navigator's Islands, and the islands lying between the two latter groups; the Feejee Islands, the Gilbert Islands, and the islands lying between the two latter groups; the Caroline Islands, the Ladrone Islands, the Sandwich Islands, and the islands lying between these two latter groups; with many detached islands not formed into groups, as Pitcairn's Island, Ducie's Island, &c.
New Zealand lies to the south-east of Australia, at the distance of about 1,400 miles; and it is surrounded on all sides by the Pacific Ocean. The most northerly point of this group is North Cape, in Lat. 34° 29' S. and Long. 172° 49' E.; the most southerly southern point in Lat. 47° 13' S. and Long. 167° 27' E.; the most easterly, Cape East, in Lat. 37° 45' S. and Long. 178° 36' E.; and the most westerly, Cape West, in Lat. 45° 54' S. and Long. 166° 10' E. The native names of the two large islands are Ahinamaui and Tewaipounamu; the colonial names of these are New Ulster, New Munster, and of the smaller one
side, Cloudy Bay, Queen Charlotte's Sound, Admiralty Bay, Blind Bay, and Massacre Bay. On the east coast of Middle Island, are Pegasus Bay, Akaroa Harbour, and Port Otago. On the west and south-west coast of the same, are Chalky and Dusky Bays, and Wangaroa, Manukao, and Kaipara Harbours Cook's Strait is about 15 miles broad at the narrowest part; it is indented on the west side with narrow locks or arms of the sea. The islands in this channel are Durville and Wellington Islands, with the island of Kapiti. The breadth of Foveaux Strait is on an average 14 miles. There are mountain ranges in the two principal islands of New Zealand, which run parallel to their east and west coasts. Mount Egmont, on the western side of North Island, is 8,270 feet high, Ruapahu, a snowy mountain, is reckoned upwards of 9,000 feet high. In Middle Island, the snowy peak of Kaikoras rises to the height of 9,300 feet. Banks' Peninsula is a rugged and mountainous tract in Middle Island. North Island has some rivers, two of which are 170 miles and 140 miles in length respectively. ww
The former of these can be navigated to a distance of 100 miles from the sea, by vessels of 30 tons burden. There is a lake called Taupo, which lies at the height of 1,887 feet above
a tabular view of the principal islands of Polynesia, with ne sea level, and has an area of 300 square miles. The following is usual particulars relating to each, as in the former lessons:
COLONIES, SETTLEMENTS, AND COUNTRIES IN POLYNESIA.
Society Islands.. Austral Islands Low Archipelago. Marquesas Islands Samoa Islands Feejee Islands Gilbert Islands. Caroline Islands Ladrone Islands
Marshall's Hogoleu Ascension Hawaii Babelthuup
The Auckland Islands are situated at the distance of about 350 miles south of New Zealand. The largest is 25 miles long, and the area of the whole group 187 square miles. The Chatham Islands are distant about 700 miles eastward of New Zealand. The groups of islands scattered in the Polynesian basin are reckoned to contain not more than 40,000 square miles, exclusive of New Zealand. They are divided into two classes as to their natural structure; the mountainous, which are mostly of volcanic formation; and the coral, which are mostly low reefs only raised a few feet above the level of the sea. The mountainous islands, or those of volcanic structure, are the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrone Islands, the Society Islands, the Marquesas Islands, and some of the Feejee, Friendly, Samoa, and Cook's Islands; the coral islands, or those which partake of the character of reefs, are the rest of the groups and single islands formerly enumerated. Of the former class the Sandwich Islands are the most mountainous, the summits of which in two instances, those of Mouna Roa and Mouna Koa, rise to the great elevation of about 16,000 and 15,000 feet above the level of the surrounding unfathomable sea. Hawaii, the principal island, there is a volcano of frequent and In immense eruptions. These islands are situated at the distance of about 1,800 miles from California, the nearest continental country to them. Hawaii has an area of 4,500 square miles, and the entire group contains about 6,000 square miles. Gold has been recently discovered in these islands; their population in 1849 was stated at 80,640. The principal port of the Sandwich Islands is that of Honololu, on the island of Oahu, where about 500 foreigners are settled.
The Caroline Islands extend over 7 degrees of Latitude and about 40 degrees of Longitude; but they are mere islets or groups of rock, mostly of coral formation. The Pelew Islands, westward of these, are of similar formation. The Ladrone or Marianne Islands are of volcanic origin, and the highest peaks rise 2,000 feet above the level of the sea. They are considered an appendage to the Philippines. The Feejee Islands occupy
about 4 degrees of Latitude and