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Neuter nouns have the nominative, the accusative, and the vocative alike. The student who is acquainted with Latin will readily see how much this Greek third declension corresponds with the Latin third declension.
The terminations given above are affixed to the stem. The stem is, in some words, the same as the nominative; thus λειμων, λειμωνος, a meadow, where the ending os is simply added to λipov. In masculine and feminine nouns, however, the stem often appears in the nominative in an altered form. When the stem is so altered you must find it before you affix the case-endings to it. In order to find the stem, remove the genitive termination from the noun; what remains is the stem; e.g. kopaкos (of a crow), the og is the sign of the genitive, which being removed, leaves kopak as the stem; and kopak is, for the sake of euphony, lengthened in the nominative into κορακς, that is κοραξ; for the laws of sound in Greek endure at the end of a word only these consonants, namely, v, p, o (, ); the other consonants are either changed or thrown away. Hence the r in the stem of Xenophon is dropped, as Neuter nouns present Ξενώφωντ-ος, Ξενώφώντ, Ξενωφων. the stem in the nominative. But when a word ends in r, the Tis either discarded or changed into σ; as
The accusative has v in masculines and feminines ending in is, vs, avg, and ovç, the stems of which severally terminate in i, v, av, and ov, as
If the stem ends in a consonant, a instead of v is found in the accusative, as φλεβ, φλεψ, φλέβα, a vein; κορακ, κοραξ, κορακα, a raven ; λαμπαδ, λαμπας, λαμπαδα, a torch.
The vocative is the same as the nominative or as the stem. The genders of the third declension are best learnt by practice. The third declension may be distinguished from the first and the second by the fact that it adds a syllable to the nominative, while in them all the cases have the same number of syllables. Nouns which have the same number of syllables in all the cases are termed parisyllabic (in Latin pur, equal), and nouns which lengthen the genitive and the cases derived from it, are termed imparisyllabic-Lat. im (in), not. Hence the first and second declensions are called parisyllabic and the third is called imparisyllabic.
Φευγε τους θηρας. Χειρ χειρα νίζει. Απεχου του ψηνος. Οι λειμώνες θαλλουσιν. Οἱ στρατιωται ᾄδουσι παιᾶνα. Εν πυρι χρυσον και αργυρον γιγνωσκομεν. Πολλοι παρα κρατηρι γίγνονται φίλοι πλείστοι δε εχθροι. Οι ανθρωποι τέρπονται κιθαρα και θαλια και χοροις και παιᾶσιν. Οι Ελληνες τον Απολλω και τον Ποσειδῶ σεβονται. Οἱ σπουδαιοι μαθηται τα Ξενοφωντος βιβλια ήδέως αναγιγνωσκουσιν.
Avoid wild beasts. They avoid a wild beast. Wash the (thy, hands). Keep ye from wasps. A soldier is delighted with the cry of victory. The cry of victory delights soldiers. O earnest scholars, read the books of Xenophon. The books of Xenophon are read by (vπо, g.) earnest scholars. We delight in beautiful meadows (d.). The meadows bloom. Poets wor ship Apollo. The poet worships Poseidon.
The adjectives which follow these nouns are—1, ὁ, ἡ απατωρ, το απατορ, fatherless, αμητωρ, αμητος, motherless, the genitive is ορος : 2. ὁ ἡ ἄρρην, το άρρεν, manly; g. αρρενος : 3. adjecIn order to facilitate the acquisition of a knowledge of the tives in wν (m. and f.) or (n.) as ὁ ή ευδαιμων, το ευδαιμον, nouns of the third declension, and to afford you thorough prac. | happy, and the comparatives in ων, ον, ιων, τον. These comtice in them, I shall divide those nouns into several classes;*paratives, after dropping the v, suffer contraction in the accusative singular and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural. The vocative is the same as the nominative neuter.
1. NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT;
and of these I give in the first place
a. Nouns of which the Nominative gives the pure Stem. The Case-endings are appended to the nominative.
εχθίονες εχθίονα (εχθίους) εχθίω)
παιᾶν-οιν | λειμων-ον
The datives in full would be παιανσι, λειμωνσι, Ξενοφωντσι, but the v is dropped before or for the sake of euphony.
b. The Nominative has the short vowel of the stem lengthened, as
ε into n, and o into w.
Stems in vr drop the r in the nominative ; as λεων instead οἱ λεωντ.
Απολλων, Apollo, Ποσειδων, Poseidon (in Latin Neptune), are declined thus: Απόλλων, Απολλων-ος, Απολλωνι, Απολλων-α, also Απολλω-a and Απολλω, thus making the accusative s. N. singular in Απολλω ; 30 Ποσειδώ.
Απολλων, Ποσειδων, and σωτηρ, a deliverer, Saviour, have the short vowel in the vocative, as ω Απολλον, ω Ποσειδον, ω
Ether Speaker (air). (orator).
λεων αιθηρ ρητωρ
λεοντος αιθερος ρητορος λεονται αιθέρι ρητορι λεοντα αιθερα ρητορ-α
The neuters of this subdivision end in p (αρ, ορ, ωρ, υρ), το Ρ. Ν. πῦρ, fire, has του πυρος.
Ελλην, o, a Greek.
Χειρ, ος, η, the hand; dat.
χερσι, dat. dual, χεροιν.
Ψην, ος, o, a wasp.
δαιμονες λεοντες αιθερες ρητορίες
ποιμεν-ων δαιμονων λεοντων αιθέρων ρητορων ποιμε-σι δαιμο-σι λεου-σι αιθερ-σι ρητορ - σι ποιμενας δαιμον-ας λεοντας αιθέρας ρητορίας ποιμεν-ες δαιμονες λεοντες αιθέρες ρητορίες D.N.A.V. ποιμεν-ε δαίμονε λεοντ-ε αιθέρ-ε ρητορε G.D. ποίμενοιν δαιμον-ον λεοντ-οιν αιθέρ-οιν ῥητορ-οιν Δαηρ, a husband's brother, makes in the vocative δαερ; Αμφίων (ονος) makes ω Αμφίον; also Αγαμεμνων (ονος) voca
Αναγιγνώσκω, I know again, tive Αγαμεμνον.
Νιζω, I wash.
Τερπω, I delight, τερπομαι
This arrangement is taken from the Elementargrammatik der Griechischen Sprache, von Dr. Raphael Kühner, 13th edit., Hannover, 1852, to which most popular work, as well as to Dr. Kuhner's Latin Manuals, the writer is much indebted,
The following in ων (ovoς) in some cases drop the v and undergo contraction: ἡ αηδων, the nightingale, g. αηδονος, contracted into αηδοῦς, d. αηδοῖ : ἡ χελίδων, swallow, g. χελίδονος, d. χελιδοῖ
Ολβιος, α, ον, happy.
της όδου, get out of the way of.
obey their (the) father and mother. The citizens worship Ceres. Persephoné follows Ceres. We admire the star. Be not ye, O huntsmen, slaves to the belly. A good mother loves a good daughter. O mother and father, love your children. The nan is hated. They hate the man. They obey wise men. I follow Ceres. Often bad sons arise from a good father and mother.
Τον γεροντα θεραπευε. Σεβου τους δαίμονας. Οἱ ποιμένες | possessive pronoun, when, from the nature of the sentence, no The Greek article has frequently the force of an English. αγελας φυλαττουσιν. Τον κακον φευγε ὡς κακον λιμενα. Ανευ mistake as to the meaning can arise. Consequently, in such δαιμονος ὁ ανθρωπος ουκ ολβιος εστιν. Ο θεός εν αιθέρι ναιει. Πολλακις χαλεπαι μερίμναι τείρουσι τας των ανθρωπων φρενας. | pronoun for the Greek article, and when you translate into cases, when you translate into English, give the possessive Επου, ω φιλε, αγαθοις ἡγεμόσιν. Εικε, ω νεανια, τοις γερουσι Greek, give the article for the possessive pronoun. της ὁδου. Πολλακις δημος ἡγεμονα έχει αδικον νοῦν. Ο θεός κολαστής εστι των αγαν υπερφρονων. Εχε νοῦν σωφρονα. Ω δαιμον, παρεχε τοις γερουσι καλην ευτυχίαν. Οἱ θηρεύται τους λεοντας ενεδρευουσιν.
Good boys honour old men. Old men are honoured by good boys. Sound-minded young men get out of the way of old men. Follow, O friends, a good leader. We have good leaders. The people often follow bad leaders. God affords prosperity to the sound-minded. Lions are hunted by huntsmen. We worship the divinity.
To the previous examples belong the following substantives in ηρ, namely ὁ πατηρ, the father; ἡ μητηρ, the mother; ή θυγατηρ, the daughter ; ή γαστήρ, the belly; ἡ Δημητηρ, Demeter (Ceres in Latin); and ὁ ανηρ, the man; differing, however, from them in the omission of in the genitive and dative singular and in the dative plural; also in the interposition of a Before σι of the dative plural, in order to soften the sound. The word avno (stem aveo), throws away thee in all the cases of the three numbers, except the vocative singular, and for the sake of sound introduces a δ: as appears from this tabular view.
at p. 255, we are induced to add the following on account of its [Although we have inserted a solution of Mr. Taylor's problem great ingenuity; besides, it gives some additional particulars of that problem.]
SOLUTION OF MR. TAYLOR'S QUESTION, p. 164, col. 1.
field, and CD its perpendicular. The length of CD is 24, A D 32,
D. Ν.Α.V. πατέρε
G.D. πατέρ-οιν μητερ-οιν
The word αστήρ, ερος, a star, which otherwise retains the ε
of the stem, belongs to this class in consequence of having its (34)
dative plural in αστρασι.
Στέργετε τον πατέρα και την μητέρα. Μη δουλευε τη γαστρι. Χαίρε, ω φιλε νεανια, τῳ αγαθῷ πατρι και τη αγαθή μητρι. Μη συν κακῳ ανδρι βουλεύου. Δημητρι πολλοί και καλοί νεῳ ησαν. Η αγαθη θυγατηρ ήδέως πείθεται τη φίλη μητρι. Οἱ αγαθοι ανδρες θαυμαζονται. Πολλάκις εξ αγαθού πατρός γίγνεται κακος υίος. Εκθαίρω τον κακόν ανδρα. Τοις αγαθοις ανδρασι λαμπρα δόξα έπεται. Ἡ Δημητρος θυγατηρ ην Περσεφόνη. Ω φίλη θυγατερ στεργε την μητέρα. Η αρετή καλον άθλον εστιν ανδρι σοφῳ. Οι αγαθοι υίοι τους πατέρας και τας μητέρας στεργουσιν. Οι Έλληνες Δημητερα σέβονται. Πείθεσθε, ω φίλοι νεανίαι, τοις πατρασι και ταις μητρασιν. Χαρίζου, ω φιλε πατερ, τη αγαθή θυγατρι.
s, we have x = Vs. Lastly, the height
of the perpendiculars P1, P2, being in proportion to their bases as
From these formulæ are derived the following rules for solution:
1. To find each man's share of the field, take three-eighths of the number of sixpences paid by each.
2. To find the distance of the first perpendicular from the acutest angle of the field, take the square root of the number of sixpences in A's money.
number of sixpences in a and B's money; et the third, the square 3. To find the distance of the second, take the square root of the root of the number in A, B, and c's money; and so on, up to the seventh perpendicular inclusive.
corner of the feld. Having found the last share of the field by 4. To find the distance of the last perpendicular from the other rule 1, take three-fourths of the square root of the number of sixpences in k's money.
5. To find the distance of the last but one from the same corner, take three-fourths of the square root of the number of sixpences in K and I's money; their two distances taken each from 50 will giv
O young men, love your father and mother. Good daughters the distances from the acutest angle of the field.
SIR,-In your first lesson on Chemistry, you direct us to procure a quarter of a pound of the glass-tube termed "quilled." "Now I have tried to get it everywhere in the town, and have been unsuccessful, as there seems to be no glass-tube known by that name in these parts. I have procured a barometer tube, but I know not whether that will do. If you will have the kindness to inform me what is meant by the term “quilled" in your next number, you will greatly oblige your attentive reader, WILLIAM DYER.
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N.D. Infirmary, Barnstaple, Devon. [The term "quilled" is applied to the thinnest variety of glass tubing. The diameter may be said, in general terms, to vary from that of a small tobacco-pipe-shank, or even smaller, to about half an inch. Barometer tubing is far too thick for several chemical purposes, and to work it requires practice and much address. would suggest that, whenever possible, students working by these lessons should form class associations, and study in concert. Many advantages would result from this practice. One student may possess that which another requires. One student may see the rationale of a process which another does not immediately comprehend; and, more important still, the remembrance of phenomena would be impressed by discussion. There is yet another reason in favour of class associations, a reason which has reference to the future rather than the present. Qualitative chemistry does not require for its prosecution any expensive instruments: but quanti-H. tative chemistry requires a delicate balance, an instrument which cannot be procured for less than £20. Such an instrument may be readily purchased by an association, but the expenditure would be too great for many individuals.]
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GEORGE RAY: The translation of the sentence is as follows:-" The ancient history of Arabia before the time of Mahommed is little known; it is only with this extraordinary man that the Arabians emerge for a short time from obscurity." The word AUSSERORDENTLICH, from which AusSERORDENTLICHEN comes, is given in Cassell's German Dictionary, p. 49. JAS. FLETCHER, Junr.: We have not yet published extracts from French writers, but still bear our promise in mind, as we stated in answer to another correspondent not long since.
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We regret to state that in No. 75 one or two misprints in the Greek Lessons escaped observation till it was too late to correct them. They are the following-p. 337, col. 2, last line, Ooiparevovσiv, which should have been DepaπEvovoiv, and p. 338, col. 1, line 4, ovog put erroneously for ovog. These mistakes will be rectified in the separate lessons.
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As Lessons in Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and other new branches of knowledge are to be carried on with regularity and vigour from the commencement of next volume, we conclude the present with some remarks on the subject of civilization. The usual theory of civilization is, that man arose from the savage state to the civilized, through a long series of gradual steps in improvement, and continued for a vast number of ages. The mutum ac turpe pecus of Horace is the acme of this absurd opinion; and although many of our modern philosophers do not perhaps go so far as to look upon man as descended from a race of crawling animals, who fought at first with their nails and their fists for their acorns and their caves, yet they still believe that man was originally no better than
must be told. It is true that when the passions are not roused by some provoking circumstances, such savages in their common intercourse with one another and with strangers may plain that their usual employments are plunder, rapine and exhibit some of the milder qualities of civilized life; but it is murder.
Seeing then, that the advocates of the original savageism of the human race, have these living witnesses to demonstrate, as they think, the truth of their theory, it may now be asked what other theory can be proposed on this subject, and when proposed, how can it be supported? Admitting the existence of an all-wise, an all-good, and an all mighty Creator, it does not appear a priori, that the original state of man could have been such as we have described; and that it would be revolt
an infant, and that he had everything to learn as he best could. The degraded and uncivilized state in which many of the South Sea Islanders are found living to this day, confirms them in this opinion; and the rude savageism of the natives of those islands in Australasia and Polynesia on which no European settlements have been formed, would seem to place it beyond a doubt. Take, for example, the island of New Caledonia, which is no less than 250 miles long and 60 miles broad, and has a population of perhaps 50,000. The character of the inhabitants is, according to D'Entrecasteaux, that of fierce fighters with one another, and devourers of human flesh. Other navigators have softened this sad picture; but the truth
The dumb and vile herd.
ing to our ideas of the wisdom, the power and the goodness of God, to imagine that man was created a savage. But we are not left to a priori reasoning in the matter. We have in our hands a document which men in all ages and in all nations have revered; a document which was penned by inspiration from heaven. This document teaches us a new and a better theory of civilization than the former; and not only better, but the only true theory that can be given. According to this document, it appears that man at first was created in the image or likeness of God; and that he held communion with his Maker, before he fell from that state in which he was created. This "likeness to God," spoken of in the document to which we have alluded, could not, of course, have consisted in his outward form or bodily appearance, for God is a Spirit, as the