Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση
[graphic]

scores of miles square, to have been, at an early epoch, vered with horizontal beds deposited by water, and that the present outline of the surface is like that represented in fig. 64.

While looking at this figure, you cannot doubt that at one time the beds cdefg were as continuous as those of a b. If the section in this diagram were a brick wall, and if the series of beds were layers of different coloured bricks, and you found that, after some tremendous hurricane or earthquake, the wall presented the omissions and gaps that now appear, you would never infer that the wall had been originally built in this manner. You must apply the same method of reasoning to the aspect of these layers of rock.

What, then, has become of all the materials marked by the dotted lines from A to B? They have all been worn away and removed by the denuding power of the ocean. Suppose the thickness of each bed to be 200 feet, and the distance from-A to B to be forty miles. Then, strata of 1,000 feet thick, and of many miles in extent, have been removed by denudation.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

lines have been removed by denudation. Sections in South Wales and Gloucestershire show that enormous beds of old red sandstone and mountain limestone, have been thus removed from the surface of the underlying rocks by the denuding action of sea currents.

In mountainous countries, these denudations are sometimes marked by rocks many thousand feet in height, which are separated from each other by intervals or valleys many miles, and even leagues in breadth. Of this there is a grand specimen on the north-west coast of Ross-shire, in Scotland. Those three stupendous mountains, Suil Veinn, Coul Beg, and Coul More, which consist of nearly horizontal strata of red sandstone repose on gneiss, the fundamental rock of the

country.

These red sandstone mountains consist of an immense suc-moving masses of water passing over them, and carrying off cession of thin layers, forming mere flags, with their surfaces distinctly ripple marked. They rise up at once, like pyramids, from the gneiss to the height of about 2000 feet, and to an average elevation of about 3000 feet above the level of the sea. It is impossible to look at these three high mountains, now rising in scattered and detached portions without inferring that, at one time, the whole country was covered with a great body of sandstone, and that enormous masses, from 1000 to more than 3000 feet in thickness, have been washed away by the denuding action of water.

It is not to be supposed that what are called valleys of In many parts of the world there are denudation have been produced by the streams which flow through them now. that these valleys are not the result of river action. England valleys without any water at all running in them. It is obvious abounds with examples of these dry valleys, especially in the combes of chalk districts, and in the numerous depressions found in the slate districts of Devonshire. Even in Jamaica, where heavy tropical rains are frequent, there are valleys in which the waters are immediately swallowed up by subterraneous cavities or sink-holes. On the west coast of Peru, where rain never falls, there are remarkable instances of dry valleys, These dry valleys appear as if they had been scooped out by which much resemble the lowland valleys of Europe. the materials which offered the least resistance. This denuan ocean, such as would be caused either by the elevation of dation might have been effected by great disturbances beneath long range of mountains from the sea, or by a disruption of They were produced either by a marine earththe strata of which the crust of the earth in that region was composed. quake, or they may have been formed beneath agitated waters, in which there were strong currents moving with great velocity. currents were afterwards protruded above the level of the sea, The rocks which were thus worn and denuded beneath such The ocean abounds in currents strong and deep. Some of One of the most splendid generalisations in geological science is presented in the "Survey of Great Britain," by these currents are constant, some are periodical, and some are only occasional. Professor Ramsey. He shows that the missing beds which streams of different breadths and depths. Of the character of have been washed away from the summits of the Mendip Hills, bodies of water, moving with different velocities, and in between Wells and Bristol, must have been originally about a mile in thickness. In considerable districts of Monmouthshire these currents we have a well-known specimen in the Gulf and Breconshire on the west, and Gloucestershire and Here-Stream of the Atlantic Ocean. High winds and heavy gales fordshire on the east, he shows that a series of ancient sedimentary rocks, no less than eleven thousand feet in thickness have been stripped off by denudation.

The stupendousness of this generalisation is in the two facts -that all these materials have been removed and transported to some other regions to compose rocks of a new formation; and that these paleozoic rocks are from twenty to thirty thousand feet thick. It is evident that whatever has been contributed to one area on the face of the globe, must have

been derived and taken from another.

One of the most magnificent, and, at the same time, most clear and palpable specimens of denudation, is furnished by Saxon Switzerland, a district of Germany about ten miles beyond Dresden. The rock of the district is what the German geologists call quadersandstein, corresponding to the green sand formation of England. The rocks on each side of the river Elbe are cut in all directions into chasms, gorges, and passages, as if mechanical tools had been used to hew them into particular shapes. Some of these passages among the rocks look like narrow lanes,-80 narrow are the openings and so smoothly perpendicular do the gigantic walls of rock rise on both sides. The walls of these rocks are cut vertically into separate masses by narrow passages, reaching from the summit to the very bottom, as if a cement that once united them had been washed

away.

These currents consist of immense

sometimes diminishing their breadth and augmenting their
The principal causes of all ocean
velocity, and vice versa.
greatly affect the velocity and the strength of these currents
currents are supposed to be certain prevalent winds-such as
the trade winds, the monsoons, &c.

Among the periodical currents of the ocean we must place the tides. These have great power in scooping shallow banks, is about a mile and a-half in an hour. When any obstacles and in abrading our coasts. The general velocity of the tide are presented to its currents, its abrading and transporting power becomes much augmented, and the process of denuda tion takes place very rapidly and extensively.

It is often found that at greater or less distances from the shore, a great discoloration of the sea frequently takes place. This discoloration is produced by heavy gales and powerful hurricanes, and is due to the action of the sea on the rocks beneath, and not to the sands and mud which the ebbing tide brings with it.

Since strong winds are generally the causes of currents in the ocean, it is obvious that the ocean streams thus produced will not extend deeper than the depth to which the propelling power of the wind or gale extends. All hydrographers have according to their depth. A wind, then, sufficient to agitate demonstrated that the waters of the ocean vary in density The perpendicular masses of these separate rocks or cliffs and propel the surface water to a certain depth beneath, will are divided horizontally into distinct layers, like blocks regu-reach a point below at which it can produce no change or larly laid upon each other in a massive work of artificial movement, as all water beneath that depth would, as far as masonry. The terminations or perpendicular extremities of surface causes are concerned, be immoveable, and would conthese masses or columns are very rarely sharp or angular, but sequently exert no denuding agency. Hence, the denuding are almost invariably well rounded, which is a clear proof of power of ocean currents depends on the depth of the sea. The Some of them appear as if two sugar- smaller the depth, the greater is their denuding power, and subaqueous action. geological era, taken place on shoals and near coasts. loaves were put together, the small end of one resting on the consequently the greatest amount of denudation has, in every

snall end of the other,

From what is called the Bastei (on the right of the engraving,
6g. 66), and 600 feet above the Elbe, the country looks as an
amphitheatre, studded with lofty and rounded ranges of moun-
tains. From the bosom of this amphitheatre, huge columnar
hills start up at once from the ground, at a considerable dis-
All these are monuments of the
tance from each other.
denuding agency of water-not that of the present Elbe, but
of the sea-at a time when this part of Germany was slowly
rising from the ocean. The identity of structure and of com-
position in all these columnar eminences prove that they once
formed one body, and that all the softer parts of their beds
bare been removed by denudation,

Sea currents have always their greatest velocity and force in shallow water and in contracted channels. It is, therefore, in these situations that, among ancient rocks, we always discover the greatest effects of their denuding power. Their geological importance depends on two things: on the relative depth of the sea which they traverse, and on their proximity to land. By their shallowness, their velocity is increased; and by their nearness to coasts, they wear away and remove the rocks that resist them. At very great depths in the bed of the ocean we have no reason to suppose that this denuding power exists. influences. If it does exist, its cause must differ from all surfa

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. XLII.

By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

PART II-INFLEXION.

NOUNS, THEIR ORIGIN AND CLASSES.

I HAVE given my scholars such instruction on the component elements of the English language as the occasion permits. You now see of what materials your mother tongue consists. In their origin, those materials are very diverse :-the Celtic, the Teutonic, the Norman-French, the Latin, the Greek, the Romance tongues -such as the French, the Italian, the Spanish-besides others, have all contributed a portion. Did I possess an unlimited command of space, I would here have entered into historical details, showing at what precise point of time the several elements entered our language. Some general idea on this head you will already bave obtained; and for the present, at least, this must suffice. Our labours, then, have put us into possession of the constituent parts of the English tongue. These constituent parts we now possess in their simple and in their compound form, that is, we know whence our words come, and of what verbal combinations they are capable. But we do not yet know what changes these simple words, and these compound words undergo in themselves. Equally are we uninformed of the laws under which they combine together so as to form sentences and become the vehicle of thought. In other words, we have dealt with the Etymology of our tongue, and have now to treat of its inflexions and its Syntax.

topeia, from two Greek words, onoma (Latin, nomen), a name, and poièo, I make, so that the term literally signifies name-making, without any reference to the ground or principle of imitation on which such making proceeds. Instances of onomatopeia exist in all languages. In English we speak of the buzz of the bee, the mew of the cat, the crash of falling timber, the crushing of a shell, &c. An English gentleman at a dinner table in China, was desirous, as he well might be, of knowing what was before him for his refreshment; but of Chinese he was ignorant. The dish on which his eyes were fixed had to him the appearance of hashed duck. Acting on this notion, he put to the servant interrogatively the words quack, quack? He was understood, and received for answer, bow, wow. After a similar manner, the nurse designates a cow as mistress moo, or a moo-cow; a lamb, she terms for her child's instruction, a baa, or a baa-lamb. Thus have arisen imitative terms which lead us to speak of the quacking of ducks, the cackling of geese, the roaring of the lion, the neighing or the whinnying of a horse, the bellowing of a bull, the mewing or purring of a cat, the croaking of frogs and ravens, the cawing of rooks, the chattering of magpies and monkeys, the barking, yelping, howling, growling, and snarling of dogs, the clucking of hens, the bleating of sheep and goats, the twittering of swallows, the chirping of crickets or sparrows, the grunting of pigs, and the gobbling of turkeys.. Here too may be placed the names of several inarticulate sounds uttered by the human organs, as laugh, cough (both originally pronounced with a strong gutteral sound, or sound in the throat), sob, sigh, moan, groan, scream, shriek, hiccough, yawn. snore, wheeze, sneeze, holloa, whoop. The last appears in hooping (whooping) cough. From imitation arise classes of words which severally express the same general sound under modifications, e. g.,

clap

dab

clash

bang

tramp

drum

dub

dash

ding

thump

hum

bob

plash

dong

bump

whirr

[blocks in formation]

ring

plump

whizz

clack

flash

twang

knell

buzz

[blocks in formation]

All the words of the English language have been brought into ine or ten classes. Arranging these classes according to their :mportance, I find them to be: 1, the noun; 2, the verb; 3, the adjective; 4, the pronoun; 5, the adverb; 6, the preposition; 7, the conjunction; 8, the article; 9, the participle; 10, the interrap jection. If, however, I follow a more natural order, it may be tap better to treat of these classes in the following succession:-1, the noun; 2, the article; 3, the adjective; 4, the pronoun; 5, the slap preposition; 6, the verb; 7, the participle; 8, the adverb; 9, whap the conjunction; 10, the interjection. By this means we get flap together under one head the noun, and what chiefly pertains to the pop noun; and under another head the verb, and what chiedy pertains In general, names were originally descriptive. The fact is to the verb, as is seen in this arrangement: specially illustrated in the Hebrew nouns, and the book of Genesis is full of instances. Thus Isaac means laughter, and Jesus means saviour. The names of rivers in other languages, when traced back to their originals, are found to be descriptive of the flow of the stream, according as it is swift, slow, quiet, noisy, &c.

Nominal Division.

1. NOUN, article, adjective, pronoun, preposition. Verbal Division.

2. VERB, participle, adverb, conjunction, interjection. The reasons of this division are obvious; for, 1st, the article limits the noun; the adjective qualifies the noun; the pronoun takes the place of the noun; the preposition governs the noun: and, 2nd, the participle belongs to the verb; the adverb qualifies the verb; the conjunction governs the verb; the interjection is an abbreviated form of a proposition.

Nouns or names are of a very high antiquity. In the noun probably is the root of language to be found. One of the earliest acts of human intelligence, must have been to give a name to some object of sight and desire. Accordingly we read in the Bible (Gen. ii. 20), that at the begining "Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field." Food, of course, was man's first want; and a name for an edible object would be among man's first articulate sounds. That the noun preceded the verb is clear from the fact that men must have had a subject to speak of, before they could speak of a subject. In other terms, the subject was anterior to the predicate, for it is the business of the predicate to make some averment touching the subject. It is not easy to determine whether names of persons or names of things were first in order. If we reflect that food is more necessary to man than even companionship, we should be disposed to assign the precedence to names of things. But if, on the other hand, we bear in mind the fact that language implies companionship, and that words are called forth by the presence of another, then we find reason for thinking a personal designation, an appellative, or a word of address, took the lead of articulate sounds.

Nouns originally were imitations; they were imitations of na. tural sounds. From the first breeze of wind and the first ripple of water, natural sounds existed and must have drawn attention. Those sounds were signs, and those signs would be the names of the things signified. Man's tendency to make names imitative of natural sounds, bears in learned phrase the designation of onoma

The name declares the qualities of the object; but, observe, there is no necessary connexion between the name and the qualities. Not always are names truly descriptive. With the progress of science even scientific names have ceased to be truly descriptive. But however correct a description of the qualities of an object its name may give, nevertheless it has no necessary connexion with the object itself. This fact is best illustrated by reference to the different names borne by the same object in different languages. Take the name God. In Hebrew, God is called Elohim and Jehovah; in Greek, Theos; in Latin, Deus; in French, Dieu; in English, God. You see there is no essential connexion between the Almighty and any one of these names. Yet the names are all descriptive. These names, and all names, are only sounds; or you regard them as written rather than as spoken, then are they certain straight and curved strokes or lines representing sounds. By one sound is the Creator designated in Hebrew, by another sound he is designated in English. Hence you may learn that any sound may denote any object. The appropriation of sounds to particular objects is purely a matter of convention, or passive agreement. Take any familiar term, and you will see an exemplification. The term "* Crystal Palace," pronounced by one pair of lips, speedily spread over the nation, and within a twelvemonth became a part of the English language. Any other suitable combination of sounds, as its designation, might have become recognised in the same way.

if

"A rose by any other name would smell as sweet."

If usage can originate nouns, usage can erect into nouns other parts of speech. Indeed, all the parts of speech may be regarded and used as nouns. You may know that a word not a noun is used as a noun, by its being constructed as a noun; that is, by its having connected with it such particles as nouns commonly take. Now, nouns take before them the articles, the and a; and they

have after them the preposition of. Consequently those words are nouns which have the or a before them, and of after them. Attend to these instances of

WORDS USED AS NOUNS.

1. Adjectives used as nouns: "The blacks of Africa are bought and sold."—"The Ancient of Days did sit" (Dan. vii. 9).—" Of the ancients." (Swift).

2. Pronouns used as nouns: "The nameless He whose nod i nature's birth." (Young).-"I was wont to load my she with knacks." (Shakspeare). "When I see many its in a page, I always tremble for the writer." (Cobbett).-"Let those two try to do this with their whos and their whiches." (Spectator).

3. Verbs used as nouns "The officer erred in granting a permit.""A may be of mercy is sufficient." (Bridge).—" To err is human, to forgive divine." (Pope).

4. Participles used as nouns: "Neither regardeth he the crying of the driver.' (Job. xxxix. 7). Reading, writing, and cyphering are necessary parts of education."—"Knowledge of the past comes next." (Harris)." I am my beloved's." (Sol. Songs, vii. 10).

[ocr errors]

5. Adverbs used as nouns : "One long now.'" "In these cases we examine the why, the what, and the how of things."-"'Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter." (Addison).

6. Conjunctions used as nouns : "None of your ifs." (Shakspeare)."Your if is the only peacemaker; much virtue lies in an if." (Shakspeare).

7. Interjections used as nouns: "Will cuts him short with a What then?" (Addison).—“ With hark and whoop and wild halloo." (Scott). 8. Other words used as nouns : "Us is a personal pronoun." (Murray) "I and J were formerly expressed by the same character, as were U and V." (Allen).—"Th has two sounds." (Murray)," Let B. be a now or instant." (Harris)." Within this wooden O." (Shakspeare). "Here are eight ands in one sentence." (Blair).

From the study of these instances you will learn the grounds of the rule given by Campbell, in his Rhetoric, "All words and signs taken technically (that is, independent of their meaning, and merely as things spoken of) are nouns; or rather are things read and construed (constructed) as nouns; as, 'For this reason I prefer contemporary to cotemporary.' You will also see that adjectives, when they represent more than one, take s in the plural, as if they were nouns; e. g., the ancients, the elders. Yet we do not say the wises, but the wise. The reason seems to be, that elder and ancient, though adjectives in form and import originally, have come to have a permanent force as nouns; as is seen in the fact that you can say "an ancient," "an elder;" but you cannot say "a wise;" "a sage," you can say, though, sage and wise are nearly the same in meaning, and though properly they are both adjectives. These remarks illustrate the extent to which usage prevails in language, and show that in a living language so rich as the English, rules to which no exception can be given are not easily laid down.

nise another class, namely, verbal nouns. Verbal nouns are such
as are formed from verbs; e. g., "If the blood of bulls sanctifieth
to the purifying of the flesh." (Heb. ix. 13). Here purifying is
a noun derived from the verb to purify. The addition of the syl-
lable ing, or the employment of the present participle as a noun,
is a very prolific source of nouns. But observe, when a noun is
thus formed, it has the attributes because it performs the functions
of a noun. Now a noun is connected with another noun, when
the one is dependent on the other, by the preposition of. Thus we
In the same way we ought
say, "the purification of the temple.'
But inaccurate writers,
to say the purifying of the temple.
while they use verbal nouns as nouns, allow them to retain their
qualities as participles or parts of verbs, and deprive them of their
rights as nouns ; omitting the connecting of, and writing thus, "to
the purifying the flesh;" "his handling the subject was good."

[ocr errors]

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXII.
SECTION LXXXIX.

Hin (Sect. 28.) applied to time, may refer as well to the future, as to the past. Ex.: Bis zu dem zwanzigsten Jahrhundert hin, können noch viele Umwälzungen, in der alten Welt sowohl, wie in der neuen, Statt finden; up to (between this and) the twentieth century (thither) there may yet, in the old world, as well as in the new, many revolutions take place. Mancher klagt nach einem leichtsinnig verlebten Jünglingsalter, daß nun die günstigste Zeit um Kenntnisse zu erwerben hin sei; many a one complains, after a frivolously spent youth, that (now) the most favourable period for acquiring knowledge is past (lost, or gone). In this latter sense tahin is likewise employed; as, die Ernte ist vergangen, ter Sommer ist dahin; the harvest is gone, the summer is passed.

I. Einen Schritt thun to take a step; as, welche Schritte müssen gethan werden? What steps must be taken? Schritt halten=to keep step, to keep pace; as, tiefer Knabe versucht gleichen Schritt mit dem Vater zu halten; this boy tries to keep step with his (the) father. Heinrich ist nicht fleißig genug, um gleichen Schritt mit Ernf beim Erleinen ter deutschen Sprache halten zu können; Henry is not diligent enough (in order) to enable him to keep pace with Ernest in learning the German language.

II. Einen Schuß thun to make a shot, to shoot; as, bis zu diesem Tage hat kein Mensch einen so berühmten Schuß gethan, wie Wilhelm Tell; up to this day, has no man made so renowned a shot as William Tell.

EXERCISE 92.

Auftrag, m. order, Haber, m. quarrel, Verfeh'len, to miss,
direction;
brawl:
fail;
Verscheu’chen, to scare,
frighten;
Versorger, m provider,
sustainer;

Aus'bessern, to mend, Legen, to lay; (sich le
repair;
gen, to abate ;)
Beschä'men, to shame, Majestät, f. majesty;
confound, con- Pünktlich, punctual,
fuse;
punctually;
Binnen, within ;
Schuß, m. shot;
Gefrieren, to freeze, Schwertstreich,
chill;
nätig,

In the French language adjectives are used as nouns much more than in English. A slavish adherence to the French idiom in this particular on the part of ignorant translators, has led to the introduction of words for which no sufficient authority can be found. Les religieux is a French designation of monks and nuns. This has been literally rendered into "the religious," a phrase which in English, if it means anything, does not mean what is meant by its Gallic original. That word original is an instance of an adjective, which, while it retains the force of an adjective, has acquired the quality and the rights of a noun. Accordingly we can say "this original," "that original," "the originals,"-but only in certain peculiar significations. In such a case as this it is dangerous to yield to analogy, and usage must be rigidly followed. usage, however, is not to be obeyed, if it is not present usage, or has not the popular sanction. Consequently, the following from Steele (one of the writers in the Spectator) is not to be imitated-Wer "For such impertinents;" "He is an ignorant in it."

Even

With the aid of the logical terms, abstract and concrete, two other divisions of nouns are formed. Qualitics may be considered under two aspects. They may be considered as belonging to some subject, as while paper; or they may be considered as altogether detached from any subject, as whiteness. In the former we regard the quality in question as concrete, in the latter as abstract. Hence whiteness is an abstract noun. Abstract nouns are numerous in English, being readily formed from their respective concrete adjectives by certain terminations, as black, blackness; pure, purity.

If regard is had to the origin of nouns, we may be led to recog

clement;

gracious,

m.

stroke with the
sword;

Vorbei'gehen, to pass one (unnoticed); Vorübergehen, to pass by;

Wehen, to blow;

Uebergeben, to sur- Wildbieh, m. poacher, render, deliver;

Wir lieben einen Menschen nicht
länger, als wir ihn achten;-ist
vie Achtung hin, so ist es auch rie
Liebe.

einmal den ersten Schritt zu
einem Verbrech'en gethan' hat,
thut auch leicht den zweiten.
Er hat einen guten Schuß gethan'.
Er ist soeben an dem Fenster vor
ü'ber or vorbei' gegan'gen.
Er will nicht aus gehen, weil ter
Wind so stark weht.

Wir werten wohl noch Schnee be.

kom'men.

G8 geht ein starker Wind.
Bon wem ist die Rere?

deer-stealer.

We honour a man no longer

than we respect him--if (the)
respect is gone, so also is
(the) love.
Ile who has taken the first step
to a crime, also easily takes
the second.

He has made a good shot.
He has just passed by the win-
dow.

He will not go out, because the
wind blows so hard (strong).
We shall probably yet have
(get) snow.

There is a strong wind blowing. Of whom is the speech (conver sation?)

An'richten, (See II.);
Auftragen, (See I.);
Bestreben, to endea-
vour, strive, exert
one's self;

EXERCISE 93.

Ertul'ten, to suffer, Va'terlandsfreund,

[ocr errors]

to try,

endure, bear; patriot, friend of Extrin'fen, to drown; one's country; Grüßen, to greet, Versuchen, salute; taste; Desro'tisch, despotic, Hin'reichen, (See III.); Verwirrung, f. perdespotical; Suppe, f. soup; plexity, confusion. Donau, f. Danube;

Einer seiner Freunde wurde in Ba.
Man hat mir die Untersuchung
den erfchoff'en,

dieser Sache aufgetragen.
Man trug auf, was Küche und Kel.
ler vermoch ́te.

A friend of his was shot in
Baden.

They have enjoined on me the

investigation of this matter. They served up what kitchen

1. Die beiden Freunde waren es (Sect. 36. VI) müte länger mit his friend the book; when intransitive it means "to suffice, to einander zu streiten. 2. Der König und die Kaiferin des langen Hateis be sufficient." Ex.; Sehr wenig reicht hin, einen klugen Menschen märe, sie machten endlich Friede. (Bürger.) 3. Da der Wind ziemlich glücklich zu machen; very little is sufficient to make a wise man happy. Atart und anhaltend wehte, so erblickten wir schon nach vierzehn Tagen Larv. 4. Es wcht heute ein sehr kalter Wind, und ich befürchte, daß wir Schnee bekommen werden. 5. Der Wind hat sich seit Mittag sehr gelegt; er geht seit diesen Nachraittag bei weitem nicht mehr so stark, als diesen Vor. mittag. 6. Es ging eine so kalte und schneidende Luft daß er sich binnen fünf Minuten beite Hände erfror. 7. Lebt mein Vater noch? 8 Ja, er lebt noch, aber unser junge Freund ist nicht mehr. 9. Wohl ihm, er ist | hingegangen, wo kein Schnee mehr ist. 10. Er, ter Verserger so vieler Armen, ist nicht mehr. 11. Wovon (Sect. 29.) lebt diese arme Familie? 12. Wovon wird gesprochen? 13. Von wem spricht man? 14. Das ist etwas, wovon Sic nichts verstehen. 15. Woven ist die Rede.) 16. Bon wem haben Sie das gehört? 17. Von wem hast du dieses artige Geschenk erhalten? 18. Der Wilktieb scheß nach dem Jäger, allein die Kugel verfehlte ihr Biel, und ehe er noch einen andern Schuß thun konnte, sank er selbst, getroffen von dem Blei ves Jägers. 19. Ohne Schuß und Schwertstreich wurde die Festung übergeben. 20. Er that einige Schüsse in dem Garten, um die Vögel zu verscheuchen. 22. Der junge Engländers ging soeberi an unserer Thüre vorüber. 23. Er ist an mir vorbei gegangen, ohne mich zu erblicken. 23. Dieser Mann hat die günstigste Zeit seines Lebens unbenügt verbeigehen lassen. 24. Als Friedrich der Große einen jungen Officier nach einer Schlacht sehr auszeichnete und öffentlich lebte, so antwortete dieser : Ew. (§ 58. Note) Majestät beschämen mich durch riese Ehre.“ 25. Trag' er (§ 57. 7.) mir diesen Brief auf die Post. Jchann, und laß er mir diese goldene Uhr ausbeffern. 26. Ift er schon bei dem Herrn Minister gewesen, und hat er meine Aufträge pünktlich | besorgt? 27. Ja gnädiger Herr, ich habe sie ausgerichtet. 28. Ich habe heute keinen Schritt aus dem Hause gethan. 29. Obgleich ich den ersten 1. Ein Vaterlandsfreund stirbt lieber, als daß (Sect. 61.) er zum Ver. Schritt zu einer Versöhnung gethan habe, so hält es ihm doch schwer, räther wird. 2. Die ersten Christen ervuldeten licker die Härtesten Wer ren zweiten zu thun. 80. In seinem sechzehnten Jahre that er den ersten | folgungen, als daß sie ihren Glauben verließen. 3. So etwas läßt man Schritt in die Fremde. 31. Dieser junge Schüler sucht gleichen Schritt | sich nicht zweimal fagen. 4. Einen meiner Brüder habe ich in drei Jahren mit hem ältern zu halten.

[ocr errors]

1. You will keep pace with your brother if you are more industrious. 2. Go step by step, and thou wilt not miss thy aim. 3. From whom have you received this present? 4. Of what is it made? 5. By whom is it made? 6. Is my mother still alive? 7. Yes, she is still alive; but my father is no more. 8. Peace to him, he is gone, where troubles are no more. 9. It blows very roughly to-day, and therefore it is better to stay at home. 10. I think we shall have rain when the wind abates. 11. Do not go out, for the air is so very cutting, and I fear you may chill your hands. 12. As long as the wind is in the east, it will remain cold and dry. 13. Finally, tired of the long quarrel, I made peace with my friends.

[ocr errors]

Der Zorn richtet nur Vöses an.
ist in Deutschland wohlseiler
genügt mir nicht ihn zu sehen,
ich will ihn auch sprechen.

leben als in Ameʼrika.

Ich will es ihm hin'reichen.

and cellar afforded. Anger produces only mischief. It is cheaper living in Germany,

than in America.

It does not satisfy (suffice) me to see him; I wish to speak to him also.

I will reach it (forth) to him.

Ich wollte ihn bezahlen, aber vas I was going to pay him, but the
Gelb reichte nicht hin.
money did not hold out (suf-
fice.)

Er arbeitet mit großem Fleiße (sehr He labours with great industry
fleißig).
(very industriously.)

Er hat es mit Fleiß gethan.

He has done it (with intention) intentionally.

nicht gesehen. 5 Gin Freund von mir ist vor einigen Jahren bei Wien in der Donau ertrunken. 6. Es ist gut reisen (Sect. 42. IV.), wenn man Geld, und gut leben, wenn man keine Sorgen hat. 7. In einem freien Lande ist besser leben, als in einem despotischen. 8. In Begleitung munterer Freunde ist es angenehm zu reifen. 9. Nur zu leicht vergift der Mensch im Glücke, was er ist. 10. Viele ausgezeichnete und eble Männer find vergessen worden. 11. Es darf dem Menschen nicht genügen, zu wissen was recht ist, sondern er muß sich auch bestreben, recht zu thun. 12. Es genügt mir zu wissen, daß ihr noch alle gesund seid. 13. Wie weniges reicht eft in einen Menschen glücklich zu machen. 14. Er reichte ihm die Zeitung hin, nachdem er sie selbst gelesen hatte. 15. Dieses reicht hin, ihn zufrieden zu stellen. 16. Der Koch richtet die Speisen an. 17 Er hat diese kleine Verwirrung mit Fleiß angerichtet. 18. Die Köchin The phrase "a friend of mine, a friend of his," &c., is given versuchte (Sect. 87) die Surre, che sie dieselbe auftrug. 19. Man muž in German by ein Freund von mir," a friend of me, or, einer meiner Freunde, one of my friends, &c. (§ 123. 8. d.) Ex.: Gin versuchen, ob man ihm nicht noch helfen kann. 20. Versuchen Sie einmal Freund von ihm segelte gestern nach Galifornien; a friend of his sailed diefen Wein, ob er süß genug ist. 21. Er trug mir auf, Sie von ihm zu yesterday for California. Giner meiner Freunde verheirathete sich vor | grüßen. einem Vierteljahre in Amerika; a friend of mine got married three Months ago in America.

"

SECTION XC.

I. Auftragen with the accusative, signifies to put on (as colours), or serve up (as food); as, man hat aufgetragen; they have served up (the meal). With the dative, it means to commission, enjoin, instruct, &c.; as, er hat mir aufgetragen Ihnen zu sagen, daß er Sie morgen erwartet; he has instructed me to say, that he awaits, or expects you to-morrow.

II. Antichten (literally, to make right, or ready for.) signifies to get in readiness; to prepare (as victuals ;) so lnheil anrichten; to prepare, produce, do mischief. Ex.: Nachdem die Köchin tie Sveifen angerichtet hatte, trug sie dieselben auf; after the cook had prepared the food, she served it up. Der Geiz hat schon viel Unheil angerichtet; avarice has already produced much mischief.

[blocks in formation]

1. I have just seen a brother of yours who has returned from India. 2. A friend of mine got married last week. 3. The teacher has enjoined on me the explanation of this subject. 4. Has my father instructed you to invite your brother to us this evening? 5. No, Sir, but he instructed me to tell my father that he might call on him to-morrow morning. 6. The scholar, upon the request of the teacher, handed the book to him. 7. Riches do not suffice to make a man happy. 8. A true Christian. rather than betray his belief, endures great suffering. 9. Is the dinner already put on the table? 10. No, Sir, it is not served up, it is not yet ready. 11. It is not sufficient for a prudent man to know what is right, but he also acts rightly.

SECTION XCI.

Genießen, to enjoy, govern, as already ceen, Sect. 47., the genitive or accusative. It also signifies to take nourishment, to

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »