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TO OUR READERS.

LOOKING back upon the past half-year of our labours in endeavouring to educate the peoplo, we cannot but congratulate our readers on the increasing evidence we have received from them, that our system of National Education has been eminently successful. By means of our Journal, hundreds have been led to study a variety of aseful branches of learning and knowledge, of which beforehand they had not the remotest idea ; and though coming to this study under the most disadvantageous circumstances, many have made a degree of progress in these branches which not only surprises themselves, but astonishes and delights us; and encourages us to go on in our labour of love, believing that we shall ultimately receive our reward. The new branehes of knowledge which are to be brought before our readers in the next Volume of The POPULAR EDUCATOR will be found in the last page of the last Number of this Volume; and we trust that the same success which has attended our past labours will accompany our present endeavours to impart a knowledge of them to our readers ; and that we shall have hundreds of diligent students of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy, who, though they may not rival Davy and Newton, yet may acquire a respectable proficiency in this department of learning, and one which will be of lasting avail to them through life. The Mathematics and the Languages will, of course, still form an important part of our series of Popular Instructions ; nor will Biography and Mental and Moral Philosophy be omitted, as soon as ever we can find a place for them. Geography, Instrumental Arithmetic, and various other branches begun in this Volume, shall be continued in the next Volume ; but whether our Lessons shall relate to former or to new branches of knowledge, every means shall be employed to convey the greatest possible amount of information in the least possible amount of space, and in the shortest possilole time; and we hope that our readers will give us credit for being the best judges of these necessary lements in the great work which we have undertaken.

INDEX

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PAGE

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA,

PAGE

LVI. Paradigms of Regular Verbs of the First Conjuga-

II. Section II., Addition

38

tion

73

III. Section III., Subtraction

83 LVII. Peculiarities of Verbs of the First Conjugation ;

IV. Multiplication

159

Paradigms of Verbs of the Second and Third

236

V. Multiplication and Division

84

Conjugations ...

VI. Division

296 LVIII. Paradigm of Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation

96

VII. Greatest Common Measure; Least Common Mul-

LIX. Conjugation of Reflective Verbs..

110

tiple; Fractions

371 LX. Table of the Regular Terminations of the Four Con-

jugations; Formations of the Tenses; Uniper-

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.

sonal Verb y Avoir ....

126

XXIV. Vulgar Fractions :. Multiplication of Fractions.

LXI., LXII., LXII., LXIV., LXV., LXVI., 1.XVII.,
Problem IX. Division of Fractions, &c.

26

LXVIII., LXIX. Alphabetical Table of the

XXV. Vulgar Fractions: Division, &c.

74

Irregular, Defective, Peculiar, and Onipersonal

XXVI. Weights and Measures ; Tables of Equalization 132

Verbs

140,160, 178, 187, 203, 221, 237, 265

XXVII., XXVIII., XXIX. Coins, Weights and Mea,

Fables....

..187, 222, 238, 266, 322
218, 278, 365

LXX. Participles ; the Adverb. Syntax, th. Noun.... 281
sures
LXXI. The Article and its Uses...

298
LESSONS IN BIOGRAPHY.

LXXII., LXXIII. The Adjeotive and its Peculiarities ..312, 330
X, John Butterworth, a Lancashire Mathematician 56 LXXIV., LXXV., LXXVI. Numeral Adjectives; Pro-

XI. John Kay of Royton, a Lancashire Mathematician 239

nouns ...

......336, 350, 367

XII. Jerome Stone, a Classical Scholar .....
311 | LXXVII. The Use of the Tenses

383

LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.

1. Introduction; Definitions ; Names and uses of the

Skeleton Maps of Europe and Asia, and Maps of Polynesia,

Different Books kept in a Merchant's Counting

England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland : Latitudes and Longi-

House

168

tudes, Boundaries, Divisions, Seas, Straits, Gulfs, Islands, Penin.

II. Examples of Entries in the Day-Book, Journal,

Cash-Book and Ledger

206

sulas, &c. to be prefixed to the Volume,

XXII. Explanation of the Map of Asia, Ethnography.... 29

III. Principles, and Rules for finding the Debtor and

Creditor

XXIII. Explanation of the Map of Africa; table of the

............

226

IV. Explanation of the Waste-Book, Cash-Book, Bill-

Countries, Kingdoms, Empires and States of

61

Book, Day-Book, &c. Forms of Drafts, Promis-

Africa; Ethnography

sory Notes, and Foreign Bills of Exchange 263

XXIV. Explanation of the Map of North America; table

V. Jones's System; Journalizing the Subsidiary Books 293

of the Countries, Kingdoms, Empires, and States

VI. Arrangement of the Accounts in the Ledger ;

in North America

116

Method of Posting the Journal; System of check

XXV., XXVI. Explanation of the Map of North America

on the Entries

339

Continued ; Ethnography

143

XXVII., XXVIII. Explanation of the Map of South

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.

America; table of Countries, Kingdoms, Empires

I. Introductory Remarks; Zinc; List of Materials

and States in South America

....249, 311

required by the student

259 XXIX. Explanation of the Map of Australasia; Table of

Countries, Colonies and Settlements in Austra-

LESSONS IN DRAWING.

lasia

345

IX. Perspective. Section III.

13 XXX. Explanation of the Map of Polynesia; Table of

X. Proportions of the Human Head and Face ..

45

Colonies, Settlements and Countries in Polynesia 361

XI., XII., XIII. On Trees and their Append-

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

ages

89, 137, 165

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.

XXIX. On the Denuding Agency of the Ocean

1

XXX. On the Production of Ripple Marks

52

XLII. Ioflexion. Nouns, their Origin and Classes, Nouns

XXXI. On the Distribution of Drists and Boulders 97
Common and Proper
.... 4, 14 XXXII. On the Weathering of Rocks....

121

XLIII., XLIV. Names of Persons in various lan-

XXXIII. On the Production of Landslips

135

guages

.31, 47

XXXIV. On the Effects of Electric Discharges upon

XLV. The Articles

63

Rocks

189

XLVI., XLVII. Gender

..70, 92

XXXV. On the Effects of Wind on Surface Rocks

216

XLVIII., XLIX. Number

106 XXXVI. On the Action of frost in the Disintegration of

L., LI. Case ; Adjectives

.141, 150

Rocks

232

LII. Degrees of Comparison, Numeral Adjectives

170 XXXVII. On the Effects of Snow Avalanches.....

2416

LIII., LIV. Simple Pronouns

186 XXXVIII. On the Formation and Aspect of Glaciers

286

LV. Adjective Pronouns.
211 XXXIX. On the Motion and Action of Glaciers

323
LVI. Prepositions..

228

XL. On the Transporting Power of Glaciers, and its

LVII., LVIII., LIX. The Verb

.242, 266, 274

results

352

LX. The Verbs; Have, Do, Will, shall

289 XLI. On the Formation and the Drifting of Icebergs 381

LXI. The Verbs; May, Can, Must, Ought

303

LXII. Verbs, Verb Parsing; the Participle

327

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

LXIII. Adverbs; the Conjunction; the Interjection ..... 334 XVIII. Lectures on Euclid, Book I. Prop. VI. with Co-

LXIV. Syntax; Simple Sentences; Agreement..

348

rollaries and Exercise solved. Prop. VII. with

LXV. Syntax of the Subjeot; the Article; the Adjective 363

Scholium

64

LXVI. Nouns

378 XIX. Exercises to Prop. VII. solved. Prop. VIII. with

LESSONS IN FRENCH.

Corollary and Scholium. Prop. IX. with Scholia.

Prop. X. with Corollary and Scholia. Prop. XI.

LII. Demonstrative, Relative, and Indefinite Pronouns 8

with Corollary and Scholia

101
LIII. Indefinite Pronouns; Verbs, Different Sorts ..... 16 XX. Exercises to Prop. XI., solved ..

194
LIV. Conjugations, Modes and Tenses, Use of Auxiliary

XXI. Prop. XII. Scholia and Exercise solved

271

Verbs

34 XXII. Props. XIII., XIV., and XV. Scholia, Corollaries,

LV Paradigms of the Auxiliary Verbs....

49

and Exercises, solved..

328

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LESSONS IN GEOLOG Y.-No. XXIX.
By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c.

CHAPTER II.
THE ACTION OF WATER ON THE EARTH'S CRUST.

SECTION XIII.

ON THE DENUDING AGENCY OF THE OCEAN.

DENUDATioN is a word in frequent use among geologists. It rather than excavating, their beds. In most longitudinal val.
means the act of laying bare some rocks that had been formerly leys, which form the bed of the principal river, there are
covered up, the removal of the overlying masses being affected frequently transverse valleys which run across them in such a
by water. It is used for the agency of rivers in scooping out way, that the water must have originally passed through them
their own channels in the bed or beds of a rock. Its principal | instead of excavating their present channels.
application is to the agency of the ocean and sea currents Depressions of land, called valleys, are not always easily
in wearing down, and removing, rocks that were beneath the accounted for. The diversity of their form would suggest a

diversity of origin, Mountain valley's resemble large cracks Fig: 66.

waves,

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The Denudation of Rucks in Suzon Suitzerland. In a former lesson, I intimated that the formation of valleys / produced in the strata of the earth's crust, either when was a citlicult problem in geology. It is evident that rivers, tracting, or when suddenly elevated from the bed of the ocean. in general, have not excavated their own beds, but flow in They are longitudinal, following the direction of the mountain valleys which have been formed, for the most part, by other chain ; or they are transverse, running across that direction agents. In the majority of instances, rivers are filling up, ! Their sides are generally rugged, mosily sleep, and their edge VOL. III.

53

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