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As Lessons in Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and other new must be told. It is true that when the passions are not roused branches of knowledge are to be carried on with regularity by some provoking circumstances, such savages in their com

mon intercourse with one another and with strangers may and vigour from the commencement of next volume, we con. clude the present with some remarks on the subject of civiliza- exhibit some of the milder qualities of civilized life, but it is

plain that their usuai employments are plunder, rapine and tion. The usual theory of civilization is, that man arose from murder. the savage state to the civilized, through a long series of Seeing then, that the advocates of the original savageism of gradual steps in improvement, and continued for a vast num- the human race, have these iiving witnesses to demonstrate, as ber of ages. The mutum ac turpe pecus* of Horace is the acme they think, the truth of their theory, it may now be asked of this absurd opinion; and although many of our modern what other theory can be proposed on this subject, and when philosophers do not perhaps go so far as to look upon man as proposed, how can it be supported ?, Admitting the existence descended from a race of crawling animals, who fought at first of an all-wise, an all-good, and an all-mighty Creator, it does with their nails and their fists for their acorns and their caves, not appear a priori, that the original state of m could ave yet they still believe that man was originally no better than been such as we have described ; and that it would be revolt

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an infant, and that he had everything to learn as he best ing to our ideas of the wisdom, the power and the goodness of could. The degraded and uncivilized state in which many of God, to imagine that man was created a savage. But we are the South Sea Islanders are found living to this day, confirms not left to a priori reasoning in the matter. We have in our them in this opinion ; and the rude savageism of the natives hands a document which men in all ages and in all nations of those islands in Australasia and Polynesia on which no have revered ; a document which was penned by inspiration European settlements have been formed, would seem to place from heaven. This document teaches us a new and a better it beyond a doubt. Take, for example, the island of New theory of civilization than the former; and not only better, but Caledonia, which is no less than 250 miles long and 60 miles the only true theory that can be given. According to this broad, and has a population of perhaps 50,000. The character document, it appears that man at first was created in the image of the inhabitants is, according to D'Entrecasteaux, that of or likeness of God; and that he held communion with bis flerce fighters with one another, and devourers of human flesh. Maker, before he fell from that state in which he was created. Other navigators have softened this sad picture; but the truth This likeness to God," spoken of in the document to which

we have alluded, could not, of couree, have consisted in his * The dumb and vile herd.

outward form or bodily appearance, for God is a Spirit, as the VOL. III


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game document informs us. It must therefore have consisted | Restore Christianity, and the arts and sciences will flourish! in the likeness of the spirit of man to the spirit of God, but in Restore Christianity, and the nations will become civilized : an infinitely inferior degree; it consisted in a finite degree of knowledge, righteousness and holiness, such as became a created being. When God placed man in Eden and held com

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--No. LXVI. munion with him there, it is plain that his knowledge must

By John R. BEARD, D.D. have been such as to render him fit to speak with God, since God condescended to speak with him; his righteousness must

NOUNS. have consisted simply in his innocence, or freedom from the VARIOUS FORMS OF THB SUBJECT OF A PROPOSITION. transgression of God's law, for God holds no man guiltless We now come to the noun man in our model sentence, who breaks his law; and his holiness must have consisted in freedom from moral pollution, for God cannot look upon sin,

The sick man copiously drinks. much less can he have communion with the wicked,

The noun man is the subject to the verb drinks. We thus see that Moreover, whatever was necessary to his comfort and well-a noun may be the subject of a proposition. Is there any other being, both as to the necessaries of life and to his future hap part of speech that may be the subject of a proposition ? piness, he was taught by God to perform, while he lived in

1. An adjective may be the subject of a proposition ; e. g., This innocent and contented state. But man fell from the holy

The sick drink. and happy state in which he was created, by sinning against God. Now all was changed; man lost the image of God; But here it must be observed that for drinks I have substituted he became vile and degraded. He was conscious that this drink, the plural for the singular form of the verb. The rule then change was his own fault; he hid himself. When he was is, that adjectives when used in the plural and preceded by the de. discovered, his lips belied' his heart. Notwithstanding his finite article may be the subject of a proposition. sin, God clothed him, and taught him how to clothe himself. 2. A pronoun may be the subject of a proposition; e. g, God gave him work to do, and taught him how to do it. God

I, the sick man, drink, iaid the foundation of civilization, and taught man the arts Here I is the subject to the verb drink, as I drink; so we may and sciences. God did more than this, and wonderful was

say, the deed! God laid the foundation of Christianity by giving

You, the sick mad, drink. the first sinner the Protevangelium, the first glad tidings of the

I, you, we, they drink.. Gospel. No doubt the arts and sciences are great civilizers of nen, but Christianity is the GRAND CIVILIZER. Without

These additions to the subject modify the signification ; and offer Christianity we should fall into barbarism and become savages, pono, I place) exists when a noun is added to a pronoun or a noun

instances of what is called apposition. Apposition (from ad, to, and with all our knowledge of the arts and sciences.

in order to explain the intended meaning. Thus here it is not I In proof of this assertion wo have only to turn to the history merely that drinks, but I, the sick man. Instead of a pronoun you of all the ancient empires that have ever existed in the world: may have a noun, as, Where is ancient Egypt, with all her primitivo glory, and all her boasted knowledge of the arts and sciences ? Gone, with

Alexander, the son of Philip, conquered Darius. the years before the flood! Where is Assyria, with all her Apposition takes place in the object as well as in the subject; e. g., early civilization, and all her knowledge of the most ennobling

Wine overcame Alexander, the son of Philip. sciences ? Entombed in the bowels of the earth, and only at the distance of thousands of years, just beginning to show her

3. An infinitive mood may be the subject of a proposition; e. g., dead carcase above the surface! Where is Greece, with her

To labour is pleasure. mighty warriors, her glorious arts, her splendid sciences ? Other words may be connected with the infinitive mood; as, Groaning under the tyranny of ages, or but emerging from the

A noun. To drink water is pleasant. grasp of gross ignorance and horrid superstition and fanati. A noun and adjective. To drink good water is wholesome. cism? Where is Rome, the proud mistress of the world? A noun, adjective, and adverb. To drink good water copiously is wholeBut enough-we have said and shown enough to prove that some. the true source of civilization is Christianity, the germ, in the bud, and in the full flower. Its beams have shone upon

4. A present participle may be the subject of a proposition; as, the world, and have lightened every land. Christianity has

Drinking is bad. now opened the impenetrable gates of China, the mightiest Drinking has here the force of a noun, while it retains also its empire the world ever saw, and has cast down to the ground participial force. That it is a noun is clear from its being the subthe accumulated folly and stupidity of ages. China will soon ject to the verb is. That it has also the force of a participle is be the great, the glorious, and the free; and three hundred clear from its power to govern an object ; as, and sixty millions of men, one-third of the human race, will

Drinking spirits is bad. be emancipated in a day by the invisible progress of Chris. tianity. The passions of men will no doubt tarnish the glory

As a noun, drinking may be qualified by an article, an adjectivo, of this revolution of revolutions, this one great wonder of the and a personal pronoun ; e. g., world in our day ; but the truth is no less sure and certain. Article. The drinking was injurious. "I will overturn, overturn, overturn,” said Jehovah, “ until

Adjective. Much drinking is very injurious. he come whose right it is, and I will give it him.” The words

Pers. Pron. His drinking has been injurious to him. of ancient prophecy are now being most wonderfully fulfilled ; Equally may the participial force carry with it words qualifying “Ask of me, and I shall give the heathen for thine inheritance, the object ; as, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.'

Drinking pure water is wholesome. Christianity is the GRAND CIVilizer, the only preserver and

Drinking even a glass of wine may be blamed. encourager of the Arts and Sciences, God himself being their founder. After this, our theory of Civilization is plain: God

This last sentence presents a subject compounded of several inade man civilized, and taught him the arts and sciences.

So words, for the subject to the verb may is the clause, drinking even long as man continued in the knowledge of the true God, and a glass of wine. in communion with him, he retained the former ; when he fell Here is a clear and striking instance of the advantage of the from that knowledge he lost them, and became savage! Wit- term subject over the term nominative or nominative case. These ness the South Sea Islanders! Witness the aboriginal inha. words are the subject, but they are not the nominative of the verb bitants of Malaysia and Australasia ! Witness the North may. The nominative case must be restricted to drinking. American Indians, the South American Indians, the Negroes I subjoin another example of this compound subject :of Africa, the Hottentots of the Cape, and the aboriginal inhabitants of all countries on the face of the globe. What were the

Buying books which you do not read will not make you wise. Greeks and Romans, with all their boasted learning and skill? A in this subject you have a sentence within a sentence ; that is, the Bet of civilized savages! What are the Hindoos, the Chinese, proposition is not a simple but a compound scntence, the included and the Japanese at the present day? Only civilized savages ! lor subordinate sentence being which you do not read.

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were a noun,

A past participle may be added to a present participle so as to Instead of a noun, a clause, or several words, may govern the form the subject of a proposition; e. g.,

genitive case. Instances of this kind involve idioms that may be Being involved in debt drove him from his country.

called peculiarly English, though similar constructions appear in

Greek. Here too qualifying words may be introduced, as,

What is the reason of this person's hasty dismissal of his Being greatly involved in debt, &c.

servants? The past participle itself cannot, however, be a subject to a pro- What is the reason of this person's dismissing his servant so position. We may indeed say,

hastily? Driven is a past participle ;

He prevented his army's being enclosed. but here driven is used in a general sense as a noun, and may have Possessive pronouns may hold the place of the genitive; as, prefixed to it these terms, the word, as, "the word driven is a noun."

This is the last time of my acting so imprudently. When this participial noun has the article connected with it, it in a measure loses its participial force, and, becoming a noun, is con- In this instance the pronoun agrees with the participle as if it nected with a second noun by means of a preposition; e. g., The driving of the cattle was blamed.

Sometimes the idea of possession is wholly dropped, and the

participle stands alone, either simply agreeing with a noun, or with a With the noun, however, adverbs may be joined ; e. g.,

gerundial force ; e. g.,
The driving-of of cattle is a crime at law.

1. Ho produced an argument against Moses being the author of The subject in this last sentence is very complex, extending as it the Pentateuch. does to the verb is.

2. Madam, what do you mean by holding up your train ? The two last sentences would, however, sound better and be more simple if the article and the preposition were dropped ; e. 8.,

Participles sometimes occur as simple participles, when in truth

they have the force and should have the construction of nouns, as Driving-off cattle is a crime at law,

in the following sentence: The subject of a sentence is sometimes a proposition, or several words introduced by an adverb or a preposition. Such subjects are

Wrong. “Cyrus did not wait for the Babylonians coming to

attack him."-(Rollin.) likely ta give the learner trouble ; 1, therefore, give specimens, marking the words which form the several subjects.

Right. Cyrus did not wait for the Babylonians' coming to attack

Compound or Adverbial Subjects.


Compound or adverbial subjects require the verb in the singular

number. Respecting pronouns considered as subjects, a few That too much care can injure is a dangerous doctrine.

details are necessary. Pronouns that denote one person or object By what means I may serve you is unknown to me.

must have their verb in the singular number. Pronouns that denote For a prince to be reduced

is a great calamity.

more than one person or object must have their verb in the plural Agreemont.

number. When two or more pronouns occur in one sentence, and The compound subjects I have now laid before you contain refer to the same person or thing, they must be in the same geninstances of both agreement and government. They coatnin der, number, and person; e. g., instances of agreement in,

I saw my dog bite the man. 1. Much drinking is very injurious.

She came to show me her bonnet. 2. Drinking pure water is wholesome.

But if different persons or things are intended, the proper proIn number 1. much is an adjective agreeing with the participial nouns must be employed ; e. 8., noun drinking, whose meaning it qualifies.

In number 2. pure

I saw his dog bite the man. She came to show me your hat. is an adjective agreeing with water, whose meaning it qualifies.

The distributive pronouns each, every, whoever, &c., being sinThe instances of government which it is chiefly important to gular in form, should have a verb in the singular number ; they notice, are found in these propositions :

should also have corresponding pronouns in the singular number; 1. Drinking spirits is bad. 2. Drinking a glass of wine is not necessary.

Each man is coming for his wages. 3. Disturbing the peace of the queen's subjects.

“Every good gift and every perfect gift cometh* down from

above."-(James i. 17.) In number 1. we have the simple case of the object depending on the verb, and the rule may be given as the object of a proposi

Whoever comes, let him enter. tion depends on or is governed by its verb.

Inaccurate speakers are wont to put the second pronoun in the In number 2. we find the Norman or false genitive in the words plural, saying, a glass of wine, where the two nouns are connected by of, and the

Whoever comes, let them enter. latter, namely wine, depends on or is governed by the preposition. In the third sentence the words queen's subjects present an instance

The error is the more to be guarded against, because every one or is governed by the term subjects ; the rule may be laid down thus: PositioN OF THE SUBJECT AND ITS AGREEMENT WIth the VERB. of the Saxon genitive, in which the former term queen's depends on &c., implies a number, and is nearly equivalent to all.

Of two nouns in immediate dependence, the former is in the genitive case.

Position of the Subject. This last example contains an instance of both the Norman and the Saxon genitive, and that too in combination, as in the words, The ordinary place of the subject is immediately before the verb, The peace of the queen's subjects.

The sick man drinks.
These two genitives may be indicated thus :-

One word or more may intervene between the subject.
The Saxon genitive. Queen's subjects.

The subject, however, comes after the verb in questions, as,
The Norman genitive. The peace of the subjects.

Does the sick man drink wine ? For the Saxon genitive, the rule is that when two nouns come 2. With the imperative mood, as, together the dependent noun is in the genitive case. Observe that

Go thou ; come ye. the dependence is merely structural, as in “queen's subjects," the

3. On the expression of a strong wish, as, form queen becomes the form queen's by being dependent on subjects. You may state the rule thus also, the possessive case is the

May they learn wisdom by what they suffer. case of the possessor, as, John's books. Thus stated the e'ation is

An instance of two noune combining to form our thought, and so putting more than structural, for possession is a fecta

the verb in the singular.

e. g.

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When the conjunction if is dropped :

governs the objects him and them in the objective case, go and eat Were my father alive, for “ if my father were," &c.

being infinitives depending on let. This is the true analysis of

such sentences. 6. With the conjunction nor, as,

An adverb, when it begins a sentence, puts the subject after Nor can your turpitude be denied.

its verb; as, 6. In cases of emphasis :

There will I plead with you face to face."-(Ezek. xx. 35.) Rich is the reward of the righteous.

Yet by no means universally, as, 7. After an adverb or adverbial phrase ; as,

“There they buried Abraham and Sarah."-(Gen. xlix. 31.) After the infantry marched the grenadiers, then followed the horse,

When, however, there is used as an expletive, the subject follows 8. With an interposed verb; as,

the verb; as, “ My children,” replied the dying father, “I entreat you."

There shall be no night there."-(Rev. xxi. 25.) The imperative mood of the first and third person singular and

An expletive" is a word which according, to its derivation, plural, is formed with the assistance of let; as,

signifies a word which fills up or is redundant. A regard to idiom Let him go; let them eat,

may sometimes require the retention of expletives. Here it will be observed the pronouns are in the objective case. Adverbial phrases have great force in causing the subject to take The reason is that let is really an independent verb, and as such place after the verb.


Irregular Verbs, continued from p. 370.


Fließen &), to flee, ich fließe, c.

ich floh Fliefien y), to flow, ich fließe, as.

ich floß Fragen, to ask,

ich frage, du frågft, er fragt ich frug Freffen, to devour, ich fresse

, du frifseft or frist ich fraß Frieren, to freeze, ich friere, ac.

ich fror Gahren z), to ferment, ich gähre, 2.

ich gorr Gebären, to bring forth, ich gebäre, bu gebarst (gebierst) ich gebar

er gebart (gebiert) Geben a), to give, ich gebe, du gibst, er gibt | ich gab Gebieten 6), to command, ich gebiete zc.

ich gebot Gedeihen c), to prosper, ich gedeihe, .

ich gebiet Gefallen, to please, ich gefalle, du gefädft, er gefällt ich gefiel Gehen d), to go, ich gehe, ac.

ich ging Gelingen, to succeed, es gelingt

es gelang Gelten e), to be worth, ich gelte, bu giltft, er gilt ich galt

valid, Genesen, to recover, id) genese, 26.

ich genas Genießen f), to enjoy, ich genieße, sc.

ich genoß Gerathen, to hit upon, ich gerathe, du gerathft

, ergeräht ich gericht Geschehen, to happen, es geschieht, c.

| es g¢fthah

geschahe Gewinnen, to gain, to win, ich gewinne, se,

ich gewann Gießen g), to pour, ich gieße, xc,

ich gos Bleichen h), to resemble, ich gleiche, uc

ich glich

gegossen. 9) Geußest, geußt, and impera

tive geuß. See genießen. geglichen. h) Regular as an active verb,

to make similar, to compare. Vergleichen, although active,

is irregular. geglitten. 1) Geleiten and begleiten are not

derived from gleiten, but from leiten, and are therefore re

geglommen K) Now more frequently re-

gegraben gular.
gehabt (1) Handhaben is regular

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Hangen m), to hang,

Bauen n), to hew
Heben, to heave,
Heißen, to be named,
Helfen, to help,

Reifen o), to chide,
Kennen, to know,
Klieben, to cleave,
Klimmen p), to climb,
Klingen, to sound,
Kneifen, or
Kneipen Q), to pinch,
Kommen, to come,

Können, to be able,
Kriechen r), to creep
Kühren 8), to choose,

Laden, to load,

ich hange, du gångst, er hangt ich bing ich hinge hange gehangen. m) Ging, hinge are old forms.

This verb must not be mis. taken for hången, to suspend,

which is active and regular. ich haue, ac

ich hieb ich hiebe Haue or bau gehauen. ne) Haute (regular) is used when ich hebe, x.

ich bob or hub ich höbe bebe gehoben. cutting wood, carving stone, ich heiße, du heißest, er heißt ich hieß ich hieße heibcor heiß geheißen. &c. are meant. ich helfe, du hilfft, er hilft (ich half ich hülfe or hilf


halfe ich leife, x.

ich Eiff ico fiffe feife or feil gefiffen. o) This verb is sometimes used ich fenne, ac

ich tannte ich fennete fenne gekannt. as a regular verb. ich fliebe, a.

ich tlob ich flöbe fliebe getloben. ich flimme, «.

ich flomm ich flomme flimme geklommen. p) Sometimes regular, flimmte. ich flinge, 2c.

ich klang ich flange flinge geflungen. ich fneife, or kneipe, X. Lash (niff or ich fuiffe or fneife or gekniffen or

Inipp Inippe Encipe geknippen. 9) Kneipte, gefneipt is more fre. ich tomme, du fommst, er fommt, ist fam

ich fäme
fomm gekommen.

quently used.
or du fömmst, er fömmt
ich kann, du kannst, er fann ich fonnte ich fönnte

id fricche, .
ich troch ich fröche fricche or getruchen. r) Kreuchit, freucht freud, obso-


lete. Only poetically used. ich führe, x. ich lohe id tõhre führe

gekohren. 8) Kühren is entirely antiqua

ted, wählen having taken its

place. ich late, du latest, or ladít, er ich lub

id lübe

late geladen. ladet or lant ich lasse, du lassen er låsset (tåßt) ich ließ ich ließe arse or laß gelassen. 1) Veranlassen is regular. ich laufe, tu läufst, er läuft ich lief ich liefe

laufe, lauf gelaufen. ich leite, a.

ich litt

ich litte leide gelitten. ) Verleiden, to disgust, is reich leihe, a.

ich lich ich liche leihe gelichen. gular. ich lese, du liefest, er lieset (liegt) ic las

id lase lies

ich liege, a.
ich lag ich lage liege

ich lüge, .
ich log lich loge lüge

| gelogen.
ich mahle, du mahlest (mählst) icy mahlte id mahlete or mayle gemahlen.

0) Except the past participle er mahlt (måhlt) (muhl) mühle

gemahlen, no irregular form is ich meide, a.

ich mico ich miebe meide gemieten. ich melfe, du mellft or milfst, ich molt ich mölle melte gemolken. w) Sometimes regular. Miliß er mellt or milft

&c. rarely used.
ich meffe, bu missest, et misset ich maß ich måße miß gemessen.

or inißt
ich mißfalle, du mißfallft, er ich mißfiel id mißfiele mißfalle inißfallen.

c8 mißlingt

ich mißlang es mislange mißlinge mißlungen.
ich mag, du magst, er mag, wir ich machte ich möchte

mögen, a.
ich muß, du mußt, er muß, wir ich mußte id müßte

müssen, ihr müfset, or müßt, ac.
lid nehme, tu nimmst, er nimmt ich nahm id nähme nimm genommen.

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in use.

Messen, to measure,

Mißfallen, to displease,

Mißlingen, to go amiss,
Mögen, to be able,

Müssen, to be obliged,

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Nehmen, to take,



invaded its bosom, an immense mass of the glacier is snapped,

and an enormous fragment of ice is separated from the parer By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.8., &c.

glacier and begins to float. It is this snapped or loosed frag

ment of ice, as large as a mountain, that is called an iceberg. CHAPTER IV.

All navigators who have sailed to polar regions, whether to ON THE INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC AGENTS ON THE the north or to the south, have borne witness to the extreme

rapidity with which these icebergs are formed. When a mass SECTION VIII. -ON ICEBERGS.

of ice has been separated from a glacier, or from an icy barrier, Si, ON THE FORMATION AND THE DRIPTING OF ICEBERGS.

it drifts away with the waves, and is again broken into many

pieces. From the accumulation of snow which falls upon its Our last three lessons have instructed you in the formation upper surface, such a mass assumes a fat or table-topped and the operations of glaciers. The diagrams have explained shape, and continues to increase in height. As these succesto you, in a very graphic and striking manner, how glaciers sive layers of snow accumulate, the iceberg becomes more extend from high glens among the ridges of the Alps down to heavy, and consequently sinks deeper into the sea. the lower vales where orchards and vineyards are cultivated. This accession of layers is formed not by snow only, but also Still, what you have learnt about glaciers in the Alps, or by frozen rain, and even by the dense fogs which prevail in among any inland mountains, will give you no idea of an ice- high latitudes. The American navigator WILKES relates, that berg. In order to have an accurate conception of an iceberg, when he was near the south pole, ice had accumulated on the imagine that a glacier-valley runs down to the sea-shore, and riggings and spars of his ship to the thickness of a quarter of that the glacier pushes its icy body to a considerable distance an inch, in the course of a few hours, though neither rain nor into the sea. Then, by a change in the temperature of the snow fell at the time. The icebergs, therefore, are at all times season, and by the action of the sea upon the glacier that has l on the increase ; for there are but few days in such climater in

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