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God, and equity toward our neighbour; (whence those elogies conferred on it, in Nehemiah ; Thou Neh. ix. 13. camest also down upon mount Sinai—and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and commandments : and by St. Paul; The law is Rom. vii. holy; the commandment holy, just, and good : for that commendation doth, I suppose, especially respect this part of the Jewish law, out of which he takes his instance, Thou shalt not covet :) if we also con- Rom. vii. 7. sider,
3. The end and design of these precepts, which was to ground them in true notions of religion, and to dispose them to the practice of righteousness; to render them loyal and acceptable subjects to God; to promote God's glory and their own good; which be- Deut. x. 12. ing expressed in general concerning their law, doth more especially agree to this system; being as the base and platform, the heart and quintessence of all their other laws; the which seem added as superstructures on it, or fences thereof.
4. If we also consider, that our Saviour did not derogate from this law ; but declared his intention only to expound it, or to ampliate and extend it; (they are the words of Tertullian and Irenæus ;) and how the apostles do sometimes allege some Rom. vii. 7. passages in it, as retaining some authority and force Eph. vi. 2. to oblige.
5. Considering also, further, that there is no com-mandment herein (howsoever according to its immediate and direct sense seeming peculiar to that people) which may not in a larger, or in a mysterious and spiritual meaning, which at least may not according to good analogy, or parity of reason, concern us; obliging us, if not by direct authority in
punctual manner to the very same thing, yet, as a signification of God's pleasure and approbation, to somewhat answerable and like thereto.
6. Lastly, If we consider that all, or the greatest part of, the main duties concerning us are either plainly expressed, or closely insinuated in them; or may at least be conveniently reduced to them; our Saviour himself having gone before, directing us in the matter and manner of doing it:
Considering, I say, these things, we have no small reason to yield great veneration to this ancient system of precepts; and to acknowledge the great use thereof in order to the guidance of our life and practice: we accordingly shall so descant thereon, as by considering the main drift, intrinsic reason, and spiritual intention of each particular, to reduce the chief precepts of Christian doctrine which oblige us thereto.
Premising thus much, I address my discourse to the particulars; omitting all controverted niceties concerning the division thereof, and all circumstantial questions; touching only such things as shall appear substantial and useful.
God spake all these Words, saying: THIS is a title, or superscription, like the Par de le Roi (by the King) at the head of a proclamation, declaring from whom, and in what manner, that which follows doth come; and therefore implying what it is, and how it should be received.
Cod spake ; It comes from God, as author; and that most immediately, as it were, from his own mouth; and hath consequently the nature and force of a law, obliging to highest regard and obedience;
as that which proceedeth from the most sovereign, unquestionable, and uncontrollable authority; which is promulged in a way most evident and most direct: every signification of God's purpose or pleasure is usually called God's word; for God, as the Heb. i. I. apostle says, in divers kinds and manners did speak unto the fathers; and to every such word our ear should be attentive, our heart should be submissive, our hand should be obedient; but especially they should be so, when God himself immediately declares his mind and will; as he did notoriously in this case, by a great voice, distinctly audible and intelligible, miraculously formed by himself; Behold, Deut. v. 24. say the people, the Lord our God hath shewed us his glory and his greatness, and we have heard his voice out of the midst of the fire: we have seen this day that God doth talk with man, and he liveth: and if whatever is in God's name (by message of angels, by inspiration of men, or by any other ways) revealed, must be entertained with all submiss respect, what regard is due to that word, which God is pleased, not by his ministers and instruments, but himself in person, as it were, to pronounce !
Chese words: that is, these speeches or sentences; (for so a word in scripture style signifieth ;) or these things and matters; (for the Hebrew word debarim, as the Greek pñuata, signifieth both words and things :) they are several times in the Pentateuch called the ten words, or ten things ; Exod. whence the system of them is named the Deca- Deut. iv. logue.
All these words : all, without distinction or ex-u. ception, did proceed from the same authority, and
13. X. 2.
Jam. ii. 10,
Matt. v. 19.
in the same manner; and all therefore do require the like regard and observance to be yielded to them.
I am the Lord 3 or, I am Jehovah, thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt :
THESE words are by some taken for a precept, enjoining the acknowledgment and acceptance of God, answerable to what is here implied, and consequently all the positive duties of religion, deducible hence : but we see the style is declarative and assertive, not directly imperative; and so it may pass rather as a preface, further enforcing obligation to obedience; wherein are expressed or intimated the chief reasons upon which it is grounded; every word containing in it somewhat of remarkable emphasis.
I am Jehovah; or that very same God, who under this appellation discovered myself to thy forefathers; who enacted a special covenant with them; who received homage, worship, and engagements to service from them ; who promised especial protection and favour to them and to their seed ; that Jehovah, who indeed am, what this name importeth, the only true and real God; eternal, independent, and indefectible in essence; true and infallible in word; constant and immutable in purpose; firm and faithful in performance of whatever I promise or threaten: that same Jehovah I am: to whose words therefore, upon all accounts of reason, of duty, of interest, thou particularly dost owe most submissive attention and obedience.
Thy God: that supereminent Being and Power, to whom thou peculiarly dost owe worship and ho
nour, love and affection, duty and service : who although he be indeed the Lord of all the world, yet beareth a special relation unto thee; as having Dent. vii. 6. chosen and avouched thee to be a special people to xxvi. 18. himself, above all the people that are upon the face of the earth ; having promised thee to make thee Deut. xxvi. high above all nations which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honour ; and having by many signal demonstrations of favour and mercy confirmed to thee the performance of his covenant and promise ; thou also reciprocally having avowed Deut. xxvi. me to be thy God, to walk in my ways, to keep my statutes, my commandments, my judgments, and to hearken to my voice.
Who brought thee out of the Land of Egypt;
out of the House of Bondage: THIS is a particular and most remarkable instance, by which it appeareth what God it is that doth thus impose law upon them, and how they are obliged to entertain it: that God it is, who in pursuance of his singular favour toward thee, and of his covenant made with thee, hath particularly obliged thee by so eminent a benefit, in a manner so full of wonder in itself, so full of grace toward thee, delivering thee from saddest oppression and slavery, bringing thee into a desirable state of present liberty, and of sure tendency (not otherwise than by thy fault to be frustrated) toward enjoyment of rest, of plenty, of all joy and comfort in the promised land; declaring hereby, as his glorious and divine perfections of wisdom and power, so his exceeding goodness toward thee, his faithful care over thee, his