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CONTAINING A GREAT VARIETY OF USEFUL DRILL TABLES, ORAL, SLATE,
AND DICTATION EXERCISES,
BY DANIEL W. FISH, A, M.
Thoroughly inductive in methods, and presenting many new features
text-book in arithmetic is entirely useless in the hands
of pupils who have not made some progress in learning
to read well. The first presentation of numbers must be oral, and any text-book which presents numbers, beginning with one, so that each number shall be learned not merely as a name or symbol, but as an idea, must necessarily and mainly be a book for the teacher, and should be addressed to the teacher, and give such suggestions as to methods of work as will aid in the presentation of the first lessons in numbers.
Hence, this book has been prepared as the first book in arithmetic for pupils commencing the third school year, and assumes that they have already been orally instructed to read and write numbers of four or more figures, and are able to answer simple mental questions involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
The first fifty pages of this work is meant to be largely a review of previous oral work, and a drill upon simple arithmetical processes, designed to give the pupil a more thorough knowledge of the multiplication and other tables, and to solve readily and correctly easy examples in the fundamental rules, preparatory to taking up a second or complete work on arithmetic.
The plan of this little book is unique, and will, it is believed, supply the kind of first book in arithmetic much needed. Several new features will be apparent at a glance, including Countings, Groupings, Signs, Drill Tables for abstract and concrete work, forms for slate work, etc.
The provision made for exhaustive drill cxercises cannot fail to meet the wants of the most thorough and exacting teacher, and at the same time interest and attract the pupil.
No other device can be made so efficient and useful in fixing relations of numbers in the mind of the pupil, and in securing rapidity and accuracy in the performance of work, as these drill tables.
Such of the denominate tables as enter into the business transactions of everyday life, and United States Money are used, to furnish applications in the fundamental rules, and not for the purpose of teaching reduction. Also the fractions 1, 3, etc., to to, which occur in daily life, are made familiar by drill tables and applied work, from the commencement.
No more of fractions has been presented than will give the pupil a distinct and correct idea of what fractions are, and their application to simple oral exercises.
To avoid the monotony of too much abstract work, a large amount of applied work, covering a wide scope of easy examples, in which only the natural relations of everyday life are introduced, have been given, and these have been so prepared as to review, and give practice on all previous work.
The author would make special acknowledgment of the valuable services rendered in the plan, arrangement, and coinpilation of this book, by Prof. Jonathan Piper, of Chicago, whose large experience as an educator, and acquaintance with many of the best teachers and schools of the country, have made him familiar with their needs.
With an earnest desire to add to the facilities for elementary instruction, this little book is confidently submitted to the public.
D. W. F. BROOKLYN, August, 1883.
LOOD books aid good teachers. The book cannot con
tain all that is needed or useful pertaining to the subject, and the best book is the one most teachable and most suggestive. The skillful teacher will enlarge the work suggested by the text-book. Read carefully the following:
1. Do not advance too rapidly. 2. Review daily. “Repetition is a condition of memory.” 3. Seek to cultivate in pupils the habit of self-reliance.
4. Frequently find something to commend. A little judicious praise operates as a great incentive to effort, and stimulates the intellect.
5. Oral and slate work should be carried on together.
6. This book should be used both for seat-work and in recitation.
7. The pupil should first read and solve the questions from the open book. The work should also be prepared on slate or writing-pad, the solution and answer of each question being expressed by the proper signs.
8. Daily oral as well as slate practice should be given in naming and writing sums, differences, products, and quotients.
9. In all written work by the pupil, neatness, rapidity, and accuracy should be insisted on from the start, until it becomes a fixed hubit.