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legal fictions which are resorted to, as is said for convenience, in the duplicate locality set forth in a declaration, “At London, in the kingdom of Great Britain; to wit, at Lexington, in the state of Kentucky;” or like the conduct of the ficticious and benevolent “Mr. Jackson” in ejectment suits. There is a very common practice in language, however, which, if not well examined, is liable to lead to mistake. This is the suppositive use of the verb; in which, generally, three propositions are combined, in such a degree of contraction, as almost entirely to disguise the true principle.
If is a verb in the imperative mood from gifan, to give or grant.
If all others forsake thee, I will not.
This expression contains three sentences, though in appearance but one :—
All others forsake thee—
If, gif, give, or grant that fact—
I will, or resolve, not (to forsake thee.)
Tho’, though, is an imperative verb, from thofian, to allow or admit.
“Though he is out of danger, he is still afraid.”
Allow this fact ;
He is out of danger:
He is still afraid.
Attempts have uniformly been made to explain this part of speech under a mistaken idea of a subjunctive mood; a mood resorted to in English, merely for want of knowing the meaning of words.
“If I am right, thy grace impart,
Mr. Murray's scheme would alter these phrases to, “If I be right:” but Pope was, “beyond all comparison,” a better grammarian than Murray, the opinion of the British critics to the contrary notwithstanding.
If you and Tullia are well,
Cicero pays as little regard to Mr. Murray's subjunctive rules, as Pope, Addison, Tillotson, Steele, Temple, Dean Swift, and other ungrammatical scholars of their class.
308. If the four classes of words already alluded to, are properly understood, there remains nothing else to explain; for the other parts of speech are merely nominal, or made up of words unexplained,
because not understood. They have been called particles, and thrown into one class, by several respectable writers. Others have exercised much unprofitable labor and ingenuity in a vain attempt to form them into many different classes. It is not possible for any human skill to draw a philosophic separating line between them, as between adjectives and pronouns; because no such division line exists, in practice or in fact.
309. When, therefore, we speak of adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions, it ought to be well understood, as a mere convenient resort, to get rid of explaining and reducing to practice, what writers, themselves, do not possess sufficient knowledge to develope. The writer of this treatise has an
“Situ et Tullia valetis, ego et Cicero valemus.”—Cicero. Epistles.
other reason, in addition to that incompetency which he is ready to admit. It is not the plan of his work to enter so much into the special details of language, as would be necessary in explaining English particles, word by word. It will be found, in practice, however, that these parts of speech are much abridged, under the system here proposed.
310. This “part of speech” has with propriety been represented as the general lumber heap, where all words are to be thrown, when, in parsing, neither scholar nor teacher knows what else to call them. This practice, from its obvious convenience, has been extensively adopted in schools.
The adverb takes its name from the leading idea attached to its use, as secondary to the verb. In this character, adverbs express the manner of action; as, she moves gracefully. This is much the most numerous subdivision, in the motley group of words called adverbs; and these are generally formed by adding ly to an adjective. This syllable, ly, is a contraction of lyche or like. When added to a noun it forms an adjective, and added to an adjective it is still secondary, or an adverb. There is also a number of words differently formed, which are generally connected with adjectives, and used to express the degree of quality; as, a very good, or truly good man. The real explanation of this practice is, that it employs one, and sometimes two adjectives to qualify an other.
311. Other words of this class are compounded of different terms; but generally in such a manner that they may easily be resolved into their elements; as, nevertheless, howsoever, tomorrow, peradventure, always, and others. The practice has prevailed to a considerable extent, more formerly than at present, of combining these words; and it is still thought more convenient, in many instances, to take the compound, as an adverb, than to explain the parts separately. Many of these words, in their compounded form, are going gradually out of use, as being inelegant and unnecessary.
But besides those adverbs which directly appear as compounds, there are others, the separate parts
of which are only to be found by tracing them to their origin.
312. The following is Mr. Murray's list of adverbs.
Once, twice, thrice, &c. First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally. Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, hence, thence, whithersoever. Now, to-day, already, before, lately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago, &c. To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightways. Oft, often, ofttimes, often-times, sometimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again, &c. Much, little, sufficiently, how much, how great, enough, abundantly, &c. Wisely, foolishly, justly, unjustly, quickly, slowly. Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance, verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really. Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all, in no wise, how, why, wherefore, whether, more, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, alike.
CONJUNCTIVES on CONJUNCTIONS.
“A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect sentences; so as, out of two or more sentences to make but one. It sometimes connects only words.”
Mr. Murray, whose definition of these conjunc
tive words is given above, divides them into two
kinds, copulative and disjunctive conjunctives. The following is his list of conjunctions.
“And, if, that, both, then, since, for, because, therefore, wherefore.” DISJUNCTIVE.
“But, or, nor, as, then, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding.”
The conjunctives both, either, neither, and that, are always adjectives. If, but, though, unless, and yet, are imperative verbs. If is gif, give, grant, as was said before. Though is thof, theofian, admit or allow. But has two meanings, which should not be confounded; botan, to boot; superadd. I have rode ten miles, but I wish to go ten miles farther. But is also be-utan, be out, leave out, except; as, “all but one.” All be out, leave out, except, or save, one. Unless is release, dismiss.