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improvement in each class in the school, and found it more rapid than I ever anticipated; the reading in the lower classes is much improved, and the boys have a greater fund of general information and sense, and many of thein leave before they have an opportunity to get into the upper classes : this cannot but be looked upon as a very important result. The intellectual acquirements of a boy at ten, under the present system, are equal to those of a boy at eleven years of age when taught under the monitorial system. The children and parents value the school more highly, the attendance is more regular, and many parents have shown an anxiety to let their children remain longer at the school on account of the superior instruction they now receive. The result, which I could never have hoped to obtain under the monitorial system, is, that out of the first division I have selected 11 boys as an upper class, and have commenced as it were reconstructing their education, which has enabled me to bring them much more forward in the general subjects taught in the school, and to introduce to them several subjects which before have been entirely out of their reach. In arithmetic I would beg especially to remark, that these boys take great interest, so much so that eight of them have become well acquainted with vulgar and decimal fractions, and three have purchased books, and made some advance in mechanics.

The other boys who have made some advance in mechanics, well understand the first eleven propositions in the First Book of Euclid. Four others are now going through the easy introduction to algebra. It is perhaps worthy of remark, that these boys are far better acquainted with the Bible and liturgy, geography and grammar, history, and with every other subject taught in the first division, and are more earnest and atientive to their religious duties than any of the others. This upper class is a great stimulus to the whole school; many boys are anxious and trying to get into it, it is something to which they look forward ; and I am satisfied that five of the boys now in it would have left the school some months past had I not been able to offer these advantages, which could not have been without the aid of apprentices in the school."

These testimonies to the working of the system could be extended if necessary. They appear to me to be decisive as to the second question which I proposed for consideration.

The third question, which refers to instances of partial failure, and to the prospect of further improvements, may receive a no less satisfactory answer. I will content myself with the extracts from two reports supplied by schoolmasters, one of whom is the only teacher in my district who has expressed dissatisfaction with the system; while the other has shown talent, judgment, and energy in contending against the greatest difficulties, which he has fairly overcome.

"I consider the conduct of the lads for the first two years of their apprenticeship has been quite equal to what we could reasonably expect. The third year has brought with it increased age, and sealed by the holy rite of confirmation, and at this stage we have noticed a marked and valuable change. Now first began to dawn a feeling of responsibility, and a consequent advantage to the school. Now they seem to be sensible that it is a vain thing to teach unless the instructed can see the example in the instructor."

“The introduction of pupil teachers into this school has on the whole been attended with highly beneficial results, as regards both instruction and discipline. During the first year of apprenticeship, however, the inAuence of the pupil-teachers has in most cases proved far from satisfactory. This fact is to be attributed partly to thc peculiar circumstances of the school itself, and partly to the inexperience of the apprentices. Previous to the employment of pupil-teachers the great number of scholars (280) in the school rendered it impossible for the master to devote much time to their instruction. Consequently the discipline and order of the school became his chief care, and thus attained considerable perfection. When, however, the pupil-teachers were first introduced, in proportion as the instruction was extended the discipline relaxed. Not having been educated in the school, they were unacquainted with the methods adopted to secure order, and their very enthusiasm only served at first to increase the noise and disorder of the schools. The new arrangements rendered the master's presence at one of the classes absolutely necessary, so that the discipline of the school was not, as before, his sole care. But this defect is now to a great extent remedied. As the pupil-teachers gained experience and advanced in knowledge, the discipline as well as the instruction progressed accordingly. In fact, it may now be safely asserted, that in this school pupil-teachers are a necessity both as regards the rigid discipline maintained and the amount of instruction conveyed.

“Great alterations, as before mentioned, were made in both the external and internal arrangements of the school soon after the introduction of pupil-teachers. In the first place, the managers were enabled to render the school nearly self-supporting' by raising the school-fees. Exclusive of incidental expenses, involving considerable outlay, as the purchase of a stock of books, apparatus, &c., the current expenditure is amply supplied by the income of the school. This gratifying improvement is referrible to the extended and improved instruction given in school by the employment of pupil-teachers. The large classes were subdivided, so that each child could receive a greater amount of individual attention from the teacher. This arrangement naturally facilitated the child's progress, and created a necessity for the introduction of higher subjects without neglecting the ordinary branches of instruction.

I will now endeavour to give some account of the apparent effects of the examinations and rewards for certificates of merit on the school teachers of my district. Those effects are as yet not more than an indication of what may be hereafter expected, and it might, perhaps, have been prudent to have deferred the consideration of the subject until the system had been more extensively tried, and been longer in operation. But while the generality of school managers, and especially the clergy, are confident that the most beneficial results are to be anticipated, and that the improvement of the schools will be commensurate with the undoubted elevation of the teachers in social position and intellectual qualifications, objections have been urged in some quarters, which cannot be overlooked, and which seem to render it imperative that Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools should bring before the public whatever facts may contribute to a right understanding of the question. It may also be presumed that a new system may present difficulties in its practical application, and may require to be modified, if not in its principles and general framework, yet at least in some details.

In the first place it seems scarcely necessary to adduce facts to prove that the system has acted most powerfully upon the intellectual development of the teachers. In former years I have frequently had occasion to remark that masters who had entered upon their duties with a fair quantity of general information, and tolerably accurate acquaintance with those subjects which are usually taught in good national schools, so far from appearing to extend and complete their stores of knowledge, often fell into listless and indifferent habits, and lost much which they had previously acquired. This fact was generally recognised, and various means, but none very effectual, were devised to counteract the tendency, which of course was most obvious in outlying, desolate situations, where the agency of an energetic and intelligent schoolmaster is most needed. This result has been observed in other countries; and I may be excused for stating a circumstance which bears upon the question

In the short vacation which I took this summer, I spent some days with one of the oldest and most experienced educators in Germany, formerly a pupil of Pestalozzi, who has been principal of a training establishment for 28 years, and has formed 600 teachers. He told me that many of his most promising pupils, whose attainments, on leaving the establishment, are very creditable (so far as I could judge, not falling far short of the average standard of youths trained two years at St. Mark's and Battersea), often lose the knowledge and mental cultivation* acquired in the seminary, when they have charge of schools in country villages or small towns, and degenerate rapidly, either discontinuing all study, or reading in a desultory and unprofitable manner.

This he attributed chiefly, if not entirely, to the absence of any external stimulus after the pupils have once obtained situations as schoolmasters. He was of opinion that all school-teachers should pass periodical examinations until they have acquired fixed habits of self-improvement, or at any rate, that they should undergo a regular examination when transferred to a new situation. It is quite evident how completely the system adopted by your Lordships meets this view. No young man of ability will rest satisfied until he has reached the highest grade to which he has any pretension-and there is little fear that those who pass such an examination as will secure a high certificate will ever relapse into habits of mental indolence. I have already observed more than one case in which masters who had nearly forgotten the higher subjects in which they had been prepared at the training institutions, for which they felt no direct need and found no practical application, have recommenced their studies with greater energy than ever, and have passed a fair examina.

* Bildung.


tion. These men feel that they would have been saved much anxiety and painful exertion, had the system originally entered into their calculations.

The effects of the system are not, however, confined to persons whose previous education or training had partly prepared them for the examination. Many remarkable instances have occurred in district of masters who, under the twofold stimulus of hope and fear, have overcome difficulties which appeared insuperable, and mastered subjects which were quite new to them, and apparently beyond their mental grasp. Two examples may serve to encourage those who are inclined to despond. One man is the master of a large school near London. On my examination of his school, when the managers applied for pupil-teachers, I found that he was very imperfectly acquainted with his own language, did not thoroughly understand the principles of the elementary subjects which he had to teach, and, as may be supposed, was quite unable to conduct apprentices through the course prescribed by your Lordships' Minutes. In fact he was an uneducated man, who by accident had been thrown out of the position for which he was originally intended, and had been chosen as schoolmaster for his high moral character, and apparent skill in the management of children. In consequence of the remarks which I then made at the request of his superiors, he recommenced his education, of which he had in fact to relay the foundation. At my next visit I found a remarkable change in him and in the school, and, after a satisfactory examination, recommended the candidates to be apprenticed to him. This young man obtained a Certificate of merit at the first general examination, and is steadily advancing in every subject. The second person, of whom I speak, is master of one of the largest schools in London. His early education was imperfect and mechanical. He was some years a servant in a gentleman's family, and was then appointed schoolmaster, as an intelligent and high principled man. Until your Lordships' Minutes appeared, he was satisfied with what knowledge he had been able to acquire, without much exertion and without any guidance or help, in his leisure hours; and though his school was always in excellent order, and bore marks in every class of careful and diligent teaching, it was evident that the boys had not been instructed upon a well-digested system, and that they were especially deficient in a knowledge and application of first principles. This master attended classes, bought books, worked diligently with his apprentices, and at the first trial obtained a Certificate of merit.

These are, perhaps, extreme cases, but the instances are frequent of men who have had to supply very considerable deficiencies, and have succeeded on a second trial. Nor are the effects by any means limited to those who have hitherto succeeded, or even come forward as candidates. I believe that all the masters under fifty years old, who have apprentices, are preparing for a future examination ; and many of them have told me that, whether they succeed or fail, they have derived the greatest benefit from the knowledge which they have already acquired.

Another question, at least equally important, which it is our duty to answer, is, whether the increased knowledge of the teachers has a direct bearing upon their skill in imparting knowledge, and upon the general efficiency of their schools. A full answer must be reserved for future years. At present we have hardly had a fair trial. It must be admitted that the great exertions of the schoolmasters for their own improvement, during the last two years, have made it difficult for them to devote so much time as formerly to their pupils; and it might suffice to state, what I can answer is a positive fact, that no school in my district, conducted by a certificated master, is in a less satisfactory state now than it was previously, and that, with excedingly few exceptions, a great improvement is already perceptible. But there are some points with regard to which we have sufficient data to form a more positive opinion. The teachers have had their attention strongly directed to the principles on which they have to educate their pupils. They know that the utmost importance is attached by the examiners to those papers which refer to their professional duties; that they will have to instruct a class on a subject selected by the Inspector; to write essays, and compose notes of lessons; and that the degree of their Certificate will depend materially upon the Inspector's Report of their school, as also the payment of their augmentation of salary upon the conjoint opinion of the Schoolmanagers and the Inspector. They have thus become fully conscious that the development of their own powers, and the extension of their own knowledge, important as these objects are, are still subordinate and subsidiary to the intelligent and efficient discharge of their professional duties. They have to study the methods of teaching as an art, and to investigate its principles as a science. The necessity and benefits of such a stimulus may be illustrated by these facts.

Scarcely any teachers were formerly accustomed to prepare notes of lessons previous to their delivery; and their collective teaching, as might be expected, was generally deficient in system. In the course of last spring and summer, I attended several meetings of schoolmasters in the country districts, and invariably found that they were at a loss to comprehend what was meant by notes of a lesson, which I informed them would be a leading subject of examination. Since that time the masters have taken great pains to study this subject, and many of them keep books in which they preserve the outlines of the prin

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