Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

betical characters are the most perfect representation of ideas: their origin and progress: those of modern Europe may be traced to one source. The distinctions between ancient and modern languages. Origin of the Italian and French languages. The rise of the modern languages forms a curious

art of the history of the dark ages.

P. 69-86.

CHAP. II.

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

Its origin and progress. The simplicity of its grammatical construction. Has been brought more nearly to a regular standard by the writings of Bishop Lowth, Dr. Johnson, and Mr. Horne Tooke. Is both copious and energetic, and well adapted to poetry. Its imperfections: inferior to Greek and Latin as to the arrangement of words in composition. Strictures on those writers who have unnecessarily introduced into their works many words of Latin derivation, par:icularly Sir Thomas Browne and Dr. Johnson. The practice of the latter, especially in his Rambler, seems inconsistent with his remarks in the preface to his Dictionary. The style of Gibbon considered. Several of the Scotch popular writers have deviated from the idiom of our language.

P. 87-104.

CHAP. III.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

Some of the purest writers of English recommended. Ascham, Raleigh, Speed, Taylor, Clarendon, Temple, Barrow, Locke, Dryden, Swift, Addison, Pope, Melmoth. The excellence of the English translation of the Bible. The practice of writing gives to conversation correctness and elegance. The standard of the English language. Disagreement between our orthography and pronunciation. How they ought to be regu. lated. The excellence of our language, when considered as the vehicle of some of the most instructive and delightful productions of the human mind. The settlement of the English colonies in North-America and the East-Indies will probably contri. bute to its perpetuity.

P. 105-113.

VOL. I.

A

X

CHAP. IV.

THE LATIN LANGUAGE.

Its utility. It was formerly the general language of all persons of education for conversation as well as writing. Its origin: inferior to Greek. Its beauties and discriminating features. The progress of its improvement. Sketch of the purest writers: Terence, Lucretius, Cicero, Nepos, Cæsar, Livy, Virgil,Horace, Ovid, Catullus, Tibullus, Phædrus. Points in which Latin are inferior to Greek writers. A degeneracy of style remarkable in Tacitus, Suetonius, Pliny, Lucan, Seneca. Many beauties of the classics are lost in translations. The wide extent of the Latin language before and after the fall of the Roman empire. Periods of its rise, progress, and decline. The best models of imitation for writers of Latin are Cicero and Virgil. Rules necessary to be observed in this elegant species of composition.

P. 114-133,

CHAP. V.

THE GREEK LANGUAGE,

Its origin : dialects: the theory of its derivation as stated by lord Monboddo considered. Its characteristics: harmony and wonderful copiousness. Various examples of the Greek classics prove how admirably it was adapted to subjects of poetry, eloquence, history, and philosophy. The peculiar beauties of Greek composition. The causes of the extraordinary duration and wide extent of ancient Greek as a living language. Mo. dern Greek. Comparative view of the Greek, Latin, and English languages.

P. 134-151.

CHAP. v.

ELOQUENCE.

Fine encomium on eloquence by Cicero. Four different heads under which the productions of eloquence may be consi. dered. I. The sources of argument. II. The nature of style.

III. The arrangement of the different parts of a discourse. IV. Proper action and delivery. The eloquence of ancient and modern times. What examples to be proposed for the imitation of a public speaker: Demosthenes, Cicero, lord Chatham, lord Mansfield, Burke, &c.

P. 152-170

CLASS III.

HISTORY

CHAP. I.

HISTORY IN GENERAL.

Historical information is calculated to gratify that curiosity which is common to all periods of life. The methods adopted in the early ages of the world to transmit the knowledge of events to posterity. The defects of such methods completely remedied by history. The advantages of a knowledge of history. Its most important branches, I. The history of the Jews. II. Of Greece. III. Of Rome. IV. Of Modern Europe. V. Of England. Statistics, biography, and the letters of emi. nent persons, are highly useful and pleasing in an historical point of view. Chronology and geography are the lights of history. Coins, medals, and laws, furnish it with strong auxiliary evidences.

P. 171-196.

CHAP. II.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

Comparison between ancient and modern historians. Sketch of a complete writer of history given as a standard whereby to ascertain the merits of historians.

P. 197-204.

CHAP. III.

THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS.

The accomplishment of some remarkable prophecies, relating both to the affairs of the Jews, and to the christian revelation, and the evident proofs, that the Jews were selected as the peculiar people of God, render their sacred books highly interesting. I. The remote antiquity of these books: the proofs of their authenticity: the sublime nature of their contents. II. The institutions, manners, and customs of the ancient Jews. The knowledge and worship of the one true God discriminated them from all other nations in the world. III. The effects of their opinions and institutions upon their literary compositions. The characters of Moses, David, Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel. The accuracy of the scripture chronology proved by Sir Isaac Newton. IV. Advantages to be derived from the study of the holy scriptures in general. Praise of the English translation. Sir William Jones's opinion of the holy bible.

P. 205-228.

CHAP. IV.

THE HISTORY OF GREECE.

Origin of the Greeks. The description of Homer corres. ponds with the most authentic accounts of their early manners and conditions. Athens and Sparta the most eminent of the Grecian states: their religion and government. The influence of their respective institutions upon manners and characters. The most splendid æra of Athenian greatness. Characters of some illustrious persons during that period: Miltiades, Pausanias, Cimon, Themistocles, Aristides, Socrates. The sufferings of patriots and philosophers under a democratical form of government. Degraded state of the fair sex. Hard condition of slaves. Digression on the treatnient of slaves in ancient times, and of those conveyed by the moderns to the WestIndies. Contrast between the Greeks and Persians.

P. 229-256.

CHAP. V.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The great influence of liberty and emulation upon the ele. gant arts and literature of Greece. The peculiar excellence of

Grecian poets: Homer, Sappho, Pindar, Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Menander, Theocritus. Grecian orators: Pericles, Demades, Hyperides, Æschines, Demosthenes. Historians: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon. Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Artists: Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Phidias, Alcamanes.

P. 257--266.

CHAP. VI.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The causes and consequences of the Peloponnesian war. Character of Pericles. The decline of the Athenian power and fame. Epaminondas and Pelopidas illustrious Thebans. Character of Alexander the Great. Apelles and Lysippus. The degeneracy of Athenian manners. Greece subdued by the Romans, and afterwards by the Turks. Degraded state of its present inhabitants, who retain some traces of the character of their ancestors. Advantages derived by modern Europe from ancient Greece. Concluding remarks suggested by some points of resemblance between Athens in the time of her glory, and the present state of Great-Britain.

P. 267–282.

CHAP. VII.

THE HISTORY OF ROME.

The singular excellence of the Roman history. The magni. ficence of Rome, and the wide extent of the empire in the reign of Trajan, naturally excite our curiosityt o investigate the leading causes of the greatness and fall of the Roman power. The causes of its greatness were, I. The peculiar constitution of government. II. The improvement of the arts of war. III. The attachment to the established re igion. IV. The spirit of patriotism.

P. 283-308.

CHAP. VIII.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The Roman institution and laws, by forming the manners, and directing the conduct of an enterprising people, enabled

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »