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them to establish their extensive empire. The Carthaginiarts were their most formidable rivals. Their naval power and ex. tensive commerce. Characters of Hannibal and Scipio Africanus. The civil wars. The character of Augustus. The flourishing state of literature and the arts during the Augustan age. The degeneracy of manners from that period. Its causes ; I. Luxury. 11. Corruption. III. Neglect of Education. IV. The prevalence of the Epicurean philosophy. Good and bad emperors.

Rome sacked by the Goths. Division of the em. pire. Reflections.

P. 309-327.

CHAP. IX.

THE HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE.

The events and revolution in this part of history have given rise to our present establishments, manners and modes of thinking. A short review of the most remarkable events, with their respective causes and effects. I. The feudal system. II. The crusades. III. The institution of chivalry. P. 328-363.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED

The events in modern Europe continued. IV. The refor. mation of religion. V. The revival of classical learning. The 'most remarkable discoveries of modern times, and their bene. ficial effects. Concluding observations.

P. 363-389, VOLUME II.

CLASS III. CONTINUED.

CHAP. I.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Is interesting to mankind in general, and peculiarly so to Britons. Excellent remark of Frederic king of Prussia upon this subject. The sources of our information are numerous and authentic. A sketch of those memorable reigns during which such charters were granted, and laws were passed, as form our presnt econstitution. Alfred. William the conqueror. HenJohn. Magna Charta.

Edward I. Edward III. Henry VII. Henry VIII. Queen Elizabeth. Charles I. Charles II. James II. William III. The revolution. Queen Anne. The House of Hanoyer.

P. 3-32.

ry II.

.

CHAP. II.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The general benefits which result to Englishmen from the genius of their political constitution.

P.32-42,

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Advantages to be derived from its cultivation. Its true nature not to be misunderstood. Its constituent parts are four ; I. Perception, including ideas, words, and definitions. II. Judgment, of which the foundations are three: intuition, or the ground of scientific knowledge: experience, or the ground of natural knowledge: testimony; or the ground of historical knows ledge. III. Reasoning. Its different kinds. Syllogism. Ar. guments against this mode of endeavouring to discover truth. Lord Bacon's mode of reasoning by induction. IV. Method divided into the analytic and synthetic. Practice and good examples necessary to form a correct reasoner. Examples recommended: lord Bacon, Chillingworth, Grotius, Locke, Clarke, bishop Butler, Synge, Paley. Practical influence of logic, or well regulated reason, upon mankind during the various periods of life.

P. 43-66,

CHAP. II.

THE MATHEMATICS.

Utility of mathematical knowledge. Opinion of Locke favourable to scientific pursuits. Their great perspicuity. The method of reasoning pursued in them. Mathematics are pure and mixed. I. Pure, viz. arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, fluxions. II. Mixed, viz. mechanics, optics, astronomy, pneumatics, hydrostatics. The estimation in which these studies were held in ancient times.

P. 67-77.

CHAP. III.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The sphere of the sciences has been greatly enlarged by the discoveries of the moderns: Copernicus, Kepler, lord Bacon. The most able interpreter of the laws of nature was Newton. Sketch of his discoveries.

P. 77-88.

CHAP. IV.

THE WORKS OF NATURE.

The survey of the works of nature is an employment highly useful and delightful. The researches of naturalists are directed to, I. Animals; II. Vegetables; III. Minerals. The comparative nature of man. The instinct of animals. The admirable care of nature in their structure and preservation. Her prolific power in the production of organized bodies appears to be boundless. The

organs of animals adapted to their convenience and preservation: illustrated by the formation of the eye. Prospect of the dominion of man over the inferior animals. Some parts of the creation apparently inconsistent with the benevolence of nature, and yet may be reconciled to her general economy.

P. 88-111,

CHAP. V.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The connecting links of the chain of animals and vegetables. An inquiry into their analogy leads to the science of botany, Its nature. The sexual system was established, not discovered by Linnæus. The structure of plants. Local usefulness of particular vegetables. The prospects of vegetable nature highly gratifying as a subject of taste. Mineralogy. Chemistry. The works of nature raise the mind to the consideration of their great author. Concluding address to the Supreme Being.

P. 111-147.

CLASS V.

POLITE LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS.

CHAP. I.

TASTE

Definition of taste. Its principles are implanted in every mind distinguished by good sense. Taste is capable of high cultivation. Its proper limits and standard. Individuals, as well as nations, improve their taste, in proportion to the progress of knowledge and refinement.

P. 148–168.

CHAP. II.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

The character of a critic who is a man of taste. Exam. ples: Horace, Quintilian, Vida, Addison, Spence, Lowth, the Wartons, Gray, Reynolds, Winkelman. The chief provinces of tasie: I Music. II. Painting. III. Poetry. The beauties of the classics. The pleasures which result from the exercise of a refined taste.

P. 169-193.

CLASS VI.

THE SOURCES OF OUR NATIONAL PROSPERITY, &c.

CHAP. I.

AGRICULTURE.

Has been esteemed an object of great importance by distinguished persons both in ancient and modern times. Eminent writers upon the subject: Hesiod, Xenophon, &c. It has been most flourishing in the soil of liberty. Gradually improved as old errors have been exploded, and new experiments tried, and adopted. The best method of forming general principles upon this subject. Population is limited by the means of subsistence. The character and relative importance of the husbandman. The general advantages of agriculture: Its superiority to commerce as a source of national good, and permanent power.

P. 194-210.

CHAP. II.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED. The state of Agriculture in England compared with that of France, Ireland, and America. Causes of the superiority of England. Plans of farther improvement suggested. All other arts are inferior in point of utility to that of causing the earth to bring forth a copious produce for the support of mankind.

P. 211-224.

CHAP. III.

COMMERCE.

The extensive prospect of industry exerted in every part of Great-Britain excites our curiosity to inquire into, I. The advan

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