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-tages. II. The principles. III. The comparative state of com.

The natural advantages of the island of Great-Britain as a commercial country have been gradually improved by great public works. The influence of commerce upon agriculture. Character of the English merchant. The methods which have been adopted for the promotion of commerce. A comparison between the present and former state of England proves the beneficial effects of commerce. The obstacles opposed to its farther improvement may be removed. Great Britain superior to most countries in the requisite means for a widely extended

P. 224-249.




Its chief advantages. The qualifications necessary for a gentleman who visits foreign countries. The curiosities of his own island to be previously viewed. Bad effects of going abroad too young. Haste in passing through different countries, and ignorance of foreign languages censured Eminent modern travellers; Gray, Howard, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir William Hamil. ton, Moore, Young. The traveller gratifies his taste by tread. ing on classic ground. He visits places celebrated in the writ. ings, and distinguished by the actions of the ancients. He views the ancient and modern specimens of the fine arts : architecture, sculpture, medals, pictures, books. He investi. gates the state of government, religion, commerce, agriculture, &c. and remarks their combined effects upon the manners, customs, and prosperity of nations. The general result of his travels shown by their beneficial influence upon his opinions and conduct.

P. 249-274.



Classical learning and the elements of science and philosophy are highly beneficial to those who do not follow a profession, as well as afford the only solid foundation for professional knowledge. T'he attainments requisite for, I. The barrister. II. The physician. III. The clergyman.

P. 274.


Final exhortations to the improvement of the faculties of
the mind, and the acquirement of useful knowledge, arising
chiefly from the circumstances of the present times.

P. 304-320.


On the propriety of learning the English language as an in-
troduction to foreign languages.

P. 320_324.



Levia quidem hæc, et parvi forte si per se spectentur momenti;

sed EX ELEMENTIS constant, ex principiis oriuntur omnia; et ex judicii consuetudine in rebus minutis adhibita, pendet sœpissimè etiam in maximis vera atque accurata Scientia.

Clarke Praef. in Iliad.


separate some of the most useful and the most beautiful parts from the great mass of human knowledge; to arrange them in such regular order, that they may be inspected with ease, and varied at pleasure; and to recommend them to the careful examination of young men who are studiously disposed, constitute the design of the author of this work.

It is likewise his object to make the most useful topics of literature familiar and easy to general readers, who have not had the advantage of a learned education.

The more he reflects upon the PRESENT STATE OF SOCIETY, the VARIOUS FACULTIES of the mind, and the GREAT ADVANTAGES which arise from acquiring an AMPLE FUND OF VALUABLE IDEAS, the more he is convinced of the utility of engaging in the pursuit of general knowledge, as far as may be consistent with professional views, and particular situations in life,

The custom has prevailed of late years, much than it did formerly, of introducing young men at an




early age into the mixed company of persons older than themselves. As such is the reigning mode, they ought to be prepared in some degree at least to blend manly and serious topics with the sallies of light and gay conversation. And, in order to be qualified for the introduction of such subjects, it seems requisite to unite to the study of the learned languages other attainments, which have a reference to the sciences, the works of nature, and the affairs of active life.

The improvements of the times have turned the attention of the learned to new pursuits, and given their conduct a new direction. The scholar, no longer confined within the walls of a College, as was formerly the case, now mixes in general society, and adapts his studies to an enlarged sphere of observation; he does not limit his reading to the works of the ancients, or to his professional researches alone; but shows his proficiency in the various parts of literature, which are interest. ing to the world at large.

The condition of social intercourse among those who have had the advantages of a liberal education, is at present so happily improved, that a free communication subsists between all intelligent and well-informed men.

The Divine, the Physician, the Barrister, the Artist, and the Merchant, associate without reserve, and augment the pleasure they derive from conversation, in proportion as they obtain an insight into various pursuits and occupations. The more ideas they acquire in common, the sooner their prejudices are removed, a more perfect congeniality of opinion prevails, they rise higher in each other's estimation, and the pleasure of society is ripened into the sentiments of attachment and friendship. In such parties, where the “ feast of reason and the flow of soul" prevail with the happiest effect, he who unites to knowledge of the world, the leading ideas and rational principles which well-chosen books can supply, will render himself the most acceptable, and the most valuable companion.

Such are now the abundant productions of the press, that books written in our own language upon all subjects whatever are constantly published, and quickly circulate through the whole kingdom. This circumstance has lessened that wide and very evident distinction, which in former times prevailed between the learned and the unlearned classes of the community. At present, they who have not enjoyed the benefit of a classical education may reap many of the fruits of learning without the labour of cultivation, as translations furnish them with convenient and easy expedients, which can in some measure, although an incomplete one, make amends for their ignorance of the original authors. And upon all subjects of general Literature, Science, and Taste, in their actual and most highly improved state, they have the same means of information in their power with those who have been regularly educated in the Universities, and the public schools.

Thus favourable are the temper and the circumstances of the times to the diffusion of knowledge. And if the most mature and deliberate decisions of reflection and experience be required to give weight to the opinion, that comprehensive views of learning and-science are calculated to produce the best effects upon the mind, reference can be made to both ancient and modern authorities to writers of no less eminence than Quintilian, Milton, and Locke. Their observations tend to prove, that close attention to a professional study is an affair of the first importance, but that invariable and exclusive application to any one pursuit

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