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branches designed for their tasks. Here it may be recollected that a monitor was previously taught and appointed over every class to superintend and instruct.* He will allow no whispering or speaking to any one but himself, and that on urgent business only.
84. Talking in school is considered by Lancaster as an offence. If a boy be guilty of this offence, the monitor will caution him against a repetition of it, and remind him in a discreet manner, that boys and girls who whisper, will be exposed to the whole school and disgraced, if they persist in disobeying rules and orders. When admonition will avail nothing in this or any other act of disobedience, the offender must have his name, and a description of his offence, conveyed to the Teacher; if the offender be of a senior class, he must be compelled to present the complaint himself.
85. The Teacher will then exercise his mind to find out some suitable punishment in proportion to the offence, having regard at the same time to the age and disposition of the delinquent. Among small children, merely a lecture from the Teacher, informing what will be done if they continue in wrong doing, generally answers the desired effect.
86. But among scholars of ten, twelve, or fourteen years of age, where a certain degree of hereditary arrogance begins to make its show, which too often originates from the influence of domestic dissatisfaction and bad examples; these moderate means will often prove ineffectual, and the offender must be dealt with according to demerit.
* Şee clauses 4 and 5.
87. After admonition and persuasion fail in reclaiming, then a greater degree of severity must be used; place the transgressor on a block of about twelve inches square, in view of the whole school, and in such a situation that he must stand without leaning on any thing to afford ease mark out a reasonable lesson-recite it to him several times distinctly.—When the delinquent has learned that lesson, and will read it with a proper emphasis and cadence, like a good scholar, let him go to his place.
88. Another offender may stand up in public view till he can deliver off a new lesson with a proper tone of voice, or give some pertinent explanation, &c. at his seat. A third can be employed in sweeping the house at noon, and be denied the pleasure of play.
89. When one grows so obstinate as to disregard these mild restraints, let severity increase—take Lancaster's mode as follows: "“On a repeated or frequent offence, after admonition has failed, place a wooden log round the neck of the delinquent, which serves him as a pillory, and with this he is sent to his seat. This machine may weigh from four to six pounds, some more and some less. The neck is not pinched or closely confined—it is chiefly burdensome by the manner in which it incumbers the neck, when the delinquent turns to the right or left. While it rests on his shoulders, the equilibrium is preserved; but, on the least motion one way or the other, it is lost, and the log operates as a dead weight upon the neck. Thus, he is confined to sit in his proper position.
90. “ If this is unavailing, it is common to fasten the legs of offenders together, with wooden shackles; one or more, according to the offence. The shackle is a piece of wood about a foot, sometimes six or eight inches long, and tied to each leg. When shackled, he cannot walk but in a slow, measured pace; being obliged to take six steps, when confined, for two when at liberty. Thus accoutred, he is ordered to walk round the school-room, till tired out-he is glad to sue for liberty, and promise his endeavour to behave more steadily in future. Should not this punishment have the desired effect, the left hand is tied behind the back, or wooden shackles fastened from elbow to elbow, behind the back. Sometimes the legs are tied together.
: 91. “ Frequent or old offenders are yoked together sometimes, by a piece of wood that fastens round all their necks: and thus confined, they parade the school; walking backwards, being obliged to pay very great attention to their footsteps, for fear of running against any object that might cause the yoke to hurt their necks, or to keep from falling down. Four or six can be yoked together this way."*
An effectual punishment may be imposed by " tying a bad boy to some fast object in the room after school-hours;" but this ought to be considered as an adequate punishment for some great offence.
92. The above specimens will show how to contrive a variety of other methods for punishing delinquents, as the nature of their crimes require. “ These variations in the modes of unavoidable punishment,” says Lancaster, “ give it the continual force of novelty, whatever shape it may as
This is however considered a dangerous method, where more than iwo are yoked together; and, they ought never to walk backwards.
sume. Any single kind of punishment, continued constantly in use, becomes familiar, and loses its effect. Nothing but variety can continue the power
93. Here let the young or the inexperienced Teacher, make a pause-reflect—Will this or that act of punishment create any savage cruelty or inquisitional torture ?* If so, stop -abandon the project, and exercise the mind anew.
94. The following ridiculous acts cannot be passed over without reprehensive notice, viz: Splitting a stick and fastening it to the tongue, nose, or lip-holding out a weight at arm's length-standing on one foot only-holding a brick which weighs four or five pounds-standing on a pin-block with the feet bare-shutting up a child in a dungeon, or laying it out in a coffin, &c. Some of these indiscreet acts, torment, and the others terrify, to an unreasonable and dangerous degree.
95. I shall not apologize for making the above remark, by saying, in my opinion, those acts are wrong, but will boldly ridicule them and all persons who countenance a repetition. Punishment ought to be in proportion to the crime, calculated in a manner that will humanize, and tend to selfconviction in the sufferer. In schools it ought to be contrived so that it will not hinder the delinquent in improving time, if the nature of the offence be trifling, and does not require severity.
* The degeneracy of man, since the Christian and Apostolic era, is astonishingly great; especially among some of those who profess to be followers of Christ. In many parts of our world, the gospel stares its Ministers in the face, and humanity tinges the Lawgivers with a blush.
96. We will now take into view that impulse of the mind called ambition.
AMBITION in schools will work out a far greater good, than all the rods in the forest. We must exercise our best faculties in contriving to impress on the fancy of children, a pride in doing well, and reduce their reputation as little as possible in punishing for an offence; always holding out to their view the ill appearance of disgrace, and the beauty of honour. Small presents given to little children will avail much; such as, chestnuts, walnuts, apples, pictures, and toys of many kinds; these cheap articles will create an earnestness in the little rogues to behave deserving of such agreeable presents. These presents must be given to deservers, to those who excel in good order, or in learning their tasks. If a fund be raised for this purpose,
it will not amount to any thing grievous among the employers, and in one sense may be compared to loaning money at great interest
97. EMULATION will be found a great auxiliary in governing ; for when the mind is intent on duty, the body is generally free from mischief.
Each class may have numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. to 12, printed on pasteboard and suspended from their button holes: classes in arithmetic, at stated times, may proceed in the manner of spelling classes as to precedence, and the one who excels or becomes head of the class, may have the honour to wear on his arm a badge, that is, a piece of leather about one and a half inch wide, and four or five inches long, gilt with the letters “ MERIT IN ARITHMETIC," and filleted round the edges with gold leaf. This method may be practised also for reading and writing classes; or to reward a monitor for some extraordinary