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from the counties of Johnson, Massac, and Pope, assembled at Golconda, ordering the sheriff and the clerk of the county court of Massac, together with many other citizens, to leave the country within thirty days. The sheriff and many others accordingly left the country, remaining absent all winter. This was the last act of violence on the part of the regulators; the disturbances afterwards gradually passing away, being destined, like everything else, to come to an end.

THE term of office of Governor Thomas Ford, under whose administration, as already mentioned, the condition of the State had been very materially ameliorated, having expired in December, 1846, Augustus C. French was elected Governor of the State of Illinois; he assumed the reins of government the same month, delivering, on the 8th of December, 1846, an inaugural address to the Legislature, wherein he recommends, that all the available means of the State be brought into such a condition, that they might be applied to the final payment of her public debt. Although during his administration the debt was not further reduced, but even considerably enlarged, it was while he was Governor, that Illinois entered, with gigantic strides, upon the road of industry and prosperity, recovering entirely from her sunken position, rapidly increasing in population, and so wonderfully developing her immense resources, that in point of wealth, industry, and enterprise, Illinois now acknowledgedly ranks one of the first States of the Union; her debt is larger than before; but when we consider her population, nearly trebled, and her resources, in so short a time increased a hundred fold, it no longer excites the slightest apprehension in the mind of any sensible man intending to make Illi. nois his future home, aware, as he must be, that Illinois, having successfully opposed and combatted the hideous monster of repudiation, is just now reaping the reward due to the restless energy, activity, and intelligence of her citizens, enjoying the very highest standing and credit throughout the civilized world: whereas, but a few years since, she was discredited in every portion of the globe.

In the years 1846 and 1847, a movement was made for bringing together a large mass meeting, to deliberate upon the interests of the Western States; and this resulted in the assembling of the great “Harbor and River Convention,” held at Chicago in the first week

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of July, 1847, which was a most important event in the history of Illinois, and had a very beneficial effect upon its destiny.

The attention of the citizens of Illinois having, for several years been turned to the necessity of revising the State Constitution, on August 31, 1847, a convention held for that purpose adopted the present constitution, which was ratified by the people, March 7, 1848, and went into operation on the 1st of April ensuing. Under the new constitution, Governor Augustus C. French was re-elected Governor of Illinois for the next four years, commencing with January, 1849. Upon comparing the old constitution, adopted in 1818, with the new one, it will be found that the latter is much more complete, having received many additions, besides several alterations, of which the following are the most important:

In the first place, while the old constitution, as will fully appear op reference to its third and fourth articles, made the appointment of most of the State officers, including even the Judges of the Supreme Court and inferior Courts, chiefly u., - ndent upon the General Assembly, the new constitution renders the end officers, including the said Judges, eligible by the people, those only excepted, the right of whose appointment is vested in the Governor, as from the following parallel provisions of the new constitution, in whose fourth and fifth articles they are contained, will be circumstantially seen, to wit:

The Governor (in whom, by virtue of Section 1 of Article IV., the executive power of the State is vested, and who, according to Section 2 and 3 of Article IV. is to be elected once in four years, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, and to enter upon the duties of his office on the second Monday of January succeedingthe first election of Governor, under the new constitution, having been held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, 1848), by virtue of the 12th Section of the same Article, shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate (a majority of all the Senators concurring), appoint all officers, whose offices are established by the constitution, or which may be created by law, and whose appointments are not otherwise provided for; and no such officer shall be appointed or elected by the General Assembly.

According to the 14th Section of the same Article (IV.), a Lieu tenant-Governor shall be chosen at every election of Governor, in the

and no more,

same manner, continue in office for the same time, and possess the same qualifications; and shall, by virtue of his office, be Speaker of the Senate, have a right, when in committee of the whole, to debate and vote on all subjects, give the casting vote when the Senate are equally divided, and administer the government, whenever the Governor is unable to attend to his duties.

According to the 22d Section of the same Article (IV.), there shall be elected by the qualified electors of this State, at the same time with the election for Governor, a Secretary of State, whose term of office shall be the same as that of the Governor, who shall keep a fair register of the official acts of the Governor, and, when required, shall lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers, relative thereto, before either branch of the General Assembly, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law; and shall receive a salary of eight hundred dollars per annum, except fees: Provided, that if the office of Secretary of State should be vacated by death, resignation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another, who shall hold his office until another Secretary shall be elected and qualified.

The 23d Section of the same Article (IV.) ordains, that there shall be chosen, by the qualified electors throughout the State, an Auditor of Public Accounts, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, and until his successor is qualified, and whose duties shall be regulated by law, and who shall receive a salary, exclusive of clerk hire, of one thousand dollars per annum for his services, and no more.

The 24th Section of the same Article (IV.) provides, that there shall be elected, by the qualified electors throughout the State, a State Treasurer, who shall hold his office for two years, and until his successor is qualified, whose duties may be regulated by law, and who shall receive a salary of eight hundred dollars per annum, and no

more.

Regarding the Judiciary Department, Sections 2 and 3 of Article V. provide, that the Supreme Court shall consist of three judges, two of whom shall form a quorum, whose concurrence shall in all cases be necessary, and that the State shall be divided into three grand districts, as nearly equal as may be, and the qualified electors of each division shall elect one of the said judges for the term of nine years; another of the said judges to be elected for six, and the third for

three years.

and every

The 7th Section of the same Article (V.) provides, that the State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, in each of which one Circuit Judge shall be elected by the qualified electors thereof; he shall hold his office for the term of six years, and until his successor shall be commissioned and qualified.

The 13th Section of the same Article (V.) ordains, that the first election for Justices of the Supreme Court, and Judges of the Circuit Court, should be held on the first Monday of September, 1848.

The 14th Section, that the second election for one Judge of the Supreme Court, should be held on the first Monday of June, 1852,

three years thereafter an election for one Justice of the Supreme Court.

The 15th Section, that on the first Monday of June, 1853, and every

sixth year thereafter, an election shall be held for Judges of the Circuit Courts : Provided, that whenever an additional circuit is created, provision may be made to hold the second election of such additional judge at the regular elections herein provided.

The 17th Section, that one County Judge shall be elected by the qualified voters of each county, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified.

The 21st Section provides, that the Clerks of the Supreme and Circuit Courts, and State Attorneys, shall be elected at the first special election for judges, and the second election for Clerks of the Supreme Court on the first Monday of June, 1855, and every sixth year thereafter : the second election for Clerks of the Circuit Courts, and State Attorneys, shall be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, 1852, and every fourth year thereafter.

The 23d Section provides, that the election of all officers, and the filling of all vacancies that may occur by death, resignation, or removal, not otherwise directed or provided for by the constitution, shall be made in such a manner as the General Assembly shall direct: Prorided, that no such officers shall be elected by the General Assembly.

The 27th Section, that there shall be elected, in each county in this State, in such districts as the General Assembly may direct, by the qualified electors thereof, a competent number of Justices of the

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