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taining several hilly sections, is a very level plain ; being, with the sole exception of Delaware and Louisiana, the flattest country in the Union.

Illinois is more than forty times as great as the state of Rhode Island in its area, containing but 10,720 square miles less than the entire New England states. None but the following states possess a greater area — Virginia having 61,852, Georgia 58,000, Florida 59,268, Missouri 67,380, Michigan 56,243, California 188,981, and Texas 237,321 square miles; but if California shall yet be divided into Upper and Lower California, Michigan into the state of Superior and Michigan proper, and Texas, as at the time of its annexation was provided for, into five different states, then Illinois, as far as regards its area, will rank fifth among the states of the Union. Illinois seems to be destined, within a short time, to play a great role in the United States, being entitled to this not only by the vastness of its area and its excellent geographical position, but also by the fertility of its easily culivated soil, the multitude of its rivers and fine railroads, and the rapid increase of its population, together with the enterprise and intelligence of its citizens.

The principal rivers of the state of Illinois are -

The Illinois river, which, formed by the conflux of the Kankakee and Des Moines about fifty miles south-west of Chicago, during a course of 500 miles, receives several other rivers, as the Fox river, the Spoon river, the Crooked Creek, Mackinaw, Sangamon, and the Vermilion, from the south, besides several others. The Illinois river is deep and broad, extending at several places, as at Peoria, where it forms a basin called then Peoria Lake, to such a breadth as to present the appearance of a sea. It was first navigated in the year 1828 by a steamboat.

Rock River, rising in Wisconsin, pursues a course of 300 miles, being navigable to some extent; there are, however, several rapids in the upper part of its course. A great part of the country through which Rock River runs is an undulating prairie, with a rich soil, though with but few forests.

The Kaskaskia, a navigable river, rising in Champaign county, after a run to the south-west of more than 300 miles, empties its waters into the Mississippi, about 120 miles above the mouth of the Ohio. Kaskaskia River was already, in the year 1837, navigated by steamboats as far as Carlisle. · Its banks, for an extent varying from two to ten miles, are richly garnished with woods and forests of oaks, hickory, asb, maple, elm, and acacia trees. The country through which the river winds its course is undulating and fertile.

The Big Muddy river, in the south-western portion of the state, has various sources, constituting at their conflux the river above named, which, after a run to the south-west, discharges its waters into the Mississippi. The country through which it runs is undulating and wooded, offering great advantages to agriculture and the breeding of cattle,

Embarras River, in the eastern part of the state, takes its rise near the source of the Kaskaskia, and runs southerly, discharging its waters into the Wabash about six miles below Vincennes. The land along Embarras River is not everywhere of the same good quality, consisting at the origin of the river chiefly of prairie lands, and further north of Charleston, of forests garlanding the banks of the river at a breadth varying between two and six miles, extending even to ten miles below that place.

Little Wabash River, rising also near the source of the Kaskaskia, runs south, emptying its waters into the Great Wabash, in Gallatin county. Its banks, for an extent of several miles, are garnished with good and heavy timber; at intervals poplars can be found. The country adjacent to this river is fertile, exposed however to inundations from the river.

Sangamon River, rising in McLean county, runs south-west, constituting during the latter part of its course the boundary line between Monroe . and Cass counties, and emptying its waters into Illinois River. The country watered by the Sangamon is one of the richest, being quite level, and having excellent soil.

Apple River, rising in Jo Daviess county, near the Wisconsin frontier, has a rocky bed, and is very rapid, running south-west, and flowing into the Mississippi about twenty miles below Galena. The adjacent bottom-lands have excellent soil; the more elevated country in its vicinity being hilly, its banks woody, and the country around its springs undulating

Chicago River, consisting of two branches, the more considerable one of which is that running North, and both of them flowing together within the city of Chicago, empties its waters into Lake Michigan.

Des Plaines River, rising in Wisconsin, at the distance of a few miles from Lake Michigan, rups South, and is a tributary of Illinois River by the union of its waters with those of the Kaukakee. Its banks are tufted with frequent groves, the country around it being well watered, and the soil very rich.

Du Page River, in the north-eastern section of the state, consists of two branches, emptying their united waters into the Des Plaines river, three miles above the confluence of the latter with the Kaukakee.

The Cash river, in the southern portion of the state, formed by the union of several small streams, flows into the Ohio, six miles above the junction of the latter with the Mississippi. The alluvial land along Cash River, wherever it is not exposed to inundation, possesses a rich soil and heavy timber.

The Edwards river, rising in the midst of the prairies of Henry county, runs Westward, through Mercer county, to the Mississippi.

The country around it consists of undulating prairie-lands, intersected by shady groves, and well supplied with water.

The Fever river, rising in Jo Daviess county, consists of two branches, and empties its waters into the Mississippi, about seven miles south of Galena. Its channel is rocky, and its course very rapid. On the eastern branch there is little wood, but excellent prairies, and mines yieldiog an abundant supply of lead. There is more wood on the western branch, the alluvial country around which has a rich soil. The name of the river has been derived from the fevers said to prevail in the vicinity of its banks; whilst others have called it Bean River in French, Rivière à la Fève), either of which is incorrect, the river having been named by a Frenchman of the name of Le Fèvre, who at an early period settled at the mouth of the stream.

Fox River, on the banks of which fine forests may be found, rises in Wisconsin, flowing, near Ottawa, into the Illinois.

Another river of the same name runs south, a tributary of the

Little Wabash, into which it empties its waters. The land along its banks is not very excellent.

A third river of the same name, in White county, runs, after a short course, into the Great Wabash.

Green River, rising in the swamps of the northern counties, runs west, through Henry county, into Rock River. The country below the swamps is good, consisting of both woods and prairies.

Henderson River, rising in Knox county, runs south-west, receiving during its course several small streams, and flowing into the Mississippi. Fine forests grow on its banks, the country around which is among the most fertile in Illinois.

Iroquois River, rising in the north-western section of Indiana, runs North-West, becoming a tributary of the Illinois by discharging its waters into the Kankakee. The country through which the Iroquois runs is undulating; the soil a little sandy, but rich; timber to be found in sufficient quantity

The Kankakee, one of the principal tributary rivers of the Illinois, rising in Indiana, runs west, receiving the Iroquois and Des Plaines rivers. Woods are but rarely to be met with on its banks, the prairies around which are slightly undulating, having a rich soil.

The Kickapoo consists of two branches, after the conflux of which it pursues a southerly direction, discharging its waters into the Illinois, two miles below Peoria. On both its branches there is much excellent land, intersected with groups of forests, the ground being rather hilly.

The Kishwaukee, or Sycamore, formed by the junction of several small waters, some of wbich rise in Wisconsin, others in the northern counties of Illinois, discharges the waters of its three principal branches, after their combination, in Rock River. Its banks have but little wood; the prairie along the eastern branch is flat and fertile; and the country along the southern and northern branches undulating, and remarkable for its very rich, deep, black soil, and its beds of lime and coal.

The Kite river, in Ogle county, runs west, flowing into Rock river, about two miles below Oregon. The country is very level, and the soil very fine; woods, among which are many poplars, can be found at intervals.

The Leaf river, in Ogle county, also empties its waters into Rock River. The land adjoining its banks is rich, calcareous, and woody at intervals.

Little Rock River, rising in Jo Daviess county, flows into Rock River. On its banks there is much excellent soil.

The Mackinaw (Michilimackinac), rising in the prairies of McLean county, and receiving several small brooks, runs through Tazewell county into the Illinois river, three miles below Pekin. The adjacent bottom-lands have a rich soil. Timber, especially white oak and cedar, may be found. The prairies of the country are undulating and dry. Towards the sources of the river, the number of species of woods increases, whilst the soil is very good.

The Mauvaise Terre, in Morgan county, runs west, meeting Illinois River about two miles below Naples. Although from the name of the river (Mauvaise Terre, “poor land”) one might infer that the soil of the adjacent country is of a very bad quality, this is not the case; the country, on the contrary, surpassing many other sections in fertility, and has the advantage of having a just proportion between prairie and forest, as also a remarkable salubrity of waters.

The Peek-a-ton-o-kee rises in Wisconsin, in two separate branches, which, after their conflux, flows into Illinois to meet Rock River.

The Plum river, the country surrounding the banks of which has a fine soil, with both wood and prairie, runs through Jo Daviess county into the Mississippi.

Pope's River, rising in the great prairies in the southern part of Henry county, runs west through Mercer county, discharging its waters into the Mississippi a few miles below the mouth of Edwards' River. The adjacent country is very good, but destitute of forests ; on the banks of the river, towards the end of its course, there are, however, some extensive woods, while its upper banks are surrounded by prairies.

Saline River, in Saline and Gallatin counties, consists of three branches, discharging their united waters into the Ohio, twelve miles below Shawneetown.

Senatchwine River, on the banks of which there is much good land, both wood and prairie, runs through Peoria county into Illinois River, about twenty miles above Peoria.

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