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COUNTIES.

1840.
1850.

1855.
Saline.................... ............ 5,588 ............ 6,776
*Sangamon................ 14,716 ........... 19,224 ............ 25,604
'Schuyler ..................

10,573 ............ 12,296
Scott ................ ....... 6,215 ............ 7,914 ............ 7,937
*Shelby..................... 6,659 ............ 7,807 ............ 11,270
Stark. .................. 1,573 ............ 3,710.............. 6,293

Stephenson .............. 2,800 ............ 11,666 ............ 13,316
*Tazewell................... 7,222 ............ 12,052 ............ 17,371
Union ..................... 5,524 ............. 7,615 ............ 10,106
Vermillion ............... 9,303 ............ 11,492 .......... . 15,893
Wabash .................. ............ 4,692 ............

6,233
*Warren .................... 6,739 ............. 8,176 ... ......... 12,209
Washington.............. 4,810 ........... 6,953 ............ 10,059
Wayne .................... 5,133 .......... 6,825

............

9,902 · White .................... 7,119 ............ 8,925 ............. 10,387

Whitesides................ 2,514 ............ 5,361 ............ 13,416 + Will......................... 10,167 ............ 16,703 ............. 24,468 *Williamson............... 4,457 ............ 7,216 ............ 9,430 Winnebago............... 4,609 ............ 11,775 ............ 20,826 Woodford ................ ... ... ... ... 4,415 ............ 8,400

4,240

Illinois bas, besides, a county called Cook county, which numbers more than 100,000 inhabitants, and in which Chicago, that city of unparalleled growth, is situated; another county (La Salle), with more than 35,000; three (Adams, Madison, and Peoria), with from 30,000 to 35,000; four (Fulton, Kane, St. Clair, Sangamon), with from 25,000 to 30,000; six (Hancock, Jo Daviess, Knox, Pike, Will, Winnebago), with from 20,000 to 25,000; ten (Bureau, Lake, McHenry, McLean, Macoupin, Morgan, Ogle, Rock Island, Tazewell, and Vermilion); with from 15,000 to 20,000; twenty-four with from 10,000 to 15,000; forty-two with from 5000 to 10,000: and nine with less than 5000 inhabitants. The counties having the fewest inbabitants are Pulaski and Alexander, the former with 2462, the latter with 2927 inhabitants, contiguous to each other, and being situated in the most southern section of the State.

In order to enable the reader with one glance to survey the comparatively smaller or greater density of the population of the various parts and counties of the State, we here subjoin a population-map of it, wherein the counties are marked and designated, the following columns

456

452

449

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419

............

404

corresponding to which contain a statement of the number of inhabitants residing on a geographical square mile in every single county, according to the census of the State returned in 1855 : 1. Cook ...................2396

41. McDonough .......... 475 2. Kane .................., 1049

42. Edwards ................ 466 3. Peoria..................1031

43. Williamson............ 464 4. Adams.................. 937

44. Johnson ............... | 5. Madison ................ 918

45. White ................ 6. St. Clair............... 916

46. Ogle ..... 7. McHenry.............. 878

47. De Kalb .............. .: 8. Rock Island ..........

48. Hardin ...............

.... 447. . 9. Knox ..................

: 49. Bureau .......... • 432 10. Winnebago............

50. De Witt ............. 11. Jo Daviess ............

51. Macoupin ............. 430 12. Morgan ............

52. Coles.

426 13. Lake....

. . 53. Menard ............ 413 14. Boone ...............

54. Henderson ............ 15. Clark

55. Bond ...................... 404 16. Scott .............

: 56. Whitesides ........... 17. La Salle ...........,

57. McLean. ............ 394
18. Fulton ..............

58. Kankakee .......... 386
19. Wabash
...........

59.. Cumberland .......... 385
20. Kendall .........

60. Pope................ 384 21. Pike.. ..........

61. Richland ............ 22. Schuyler ..............

62. Saline .............. 23. Will........................ 639

63. Stark ............. 383 24. Du Page ............

64. Jefferson ..... ........ 379 25. Monroe .......... 628

65. Putnam ............... 26. Hancock............... 624

66, Washington........... 377 27. Edgar ........... 588

· 67. Lawrence ............. 28. Sangamon...........

68. Marion ............. 375 29. Tazewell...............

69. Mercer............... 366 30. Brown..................

70. Carroll................ 362 31. Union ...............

71. Franklin.............. 353 32. Jersey............... 537

72. Hamilton ........... 353 33. Greene .................

73. Leé ......................

.... 349 34. Marshall............... 526

74. Grundy .............. 35. Randolph .............. 511

75. Woodford.............

341 36. Cass ....................

76. Perry............... 337 37. Massac ................

77. Shelby ........... 38. Stephenson ...........

78. Gallatin 39. Crawford ..............

79.. Pułaski ........... . 40. Warren ..................

80. Macon.

383

630

377

377

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586

554 553

528

345

511

336

505 503 490 482

830

327

319

98

81. Mason ............. 319

91. Montgomery ......... 273 82. Calhoun ............... 315

92. Alexander ............ 260 83. Clay ................

313

93. Effingham ............. 256 84. Clinton ...... ...... 302

94. Henry.................. 251 85. Fayette ..........

95. Christian ............. 213 86. Jasper ...........

96. Vermillion ............ 202 87. Wayne .............

97. Pyatt .................. 164 88. Moultrie...........

98. Champaign ........... 138 89. Logan.............. 290

99. Iroquois ................ 134 90. Jackson ............... 277

100. Livingston ........... 94 The entire number of dwellings in the State, was, in the year 1850,* 146,544; the number of families 149,153, with 851,470 members, 846,104 of whom were whites, and 5,366 free colored persons. Of the wbites 445,644 belonged to the male and 400,460 to the female sex; of the colored population 2756 to the male and 2610 to the female sex. Among the 851,470 inhabitants, there were 475 deaf and dumb, 257 blind, 249 'maniacs, and 371 idiots.

Of the inhabitants, 736,931 were born in the United States, including also the descendants of the earlier European settlers and the later immigrants; 110,593 in foreign countries; while the birth-place of 3946 could not be ascertained. Of those born in America, 3693 were from Maine, 4288 from New Hampshire, 1381 from Vermont, 9230 from Massachusetts, 1051 from Rhode Island, 6899 from Connecticut, 67,180 from New York, 6848 from New Jersey, 37,979 from Pennsylvania, 1397 from Delaware, 6898 from Maryland, 226 from the District of Columbia, 24,697 from Virginia, 13,851 from North Carolina, 4162 from South Carolina, 1341 from Georgia, 23 from Florida, 1335 from Alabama, 490 from Mississippi, 480 from Louisiana, 63 from Texas, 727 from Arkansas, 32,303 from Ten

* Owing to the fact, that in the year 1855 an incomplete and very imperfect census, which does not enter into details as did the census of 1850, was returned, most of the amounts could only be stated according to the census of 1850. Had a complete census, that besides stating the number of inhabitants, would have paid due regard to the agricultural, manufacturing, commercial, industrial, and social interests of the State, been published, the picture of Illinois this book is intended to place before the eyes of the reader, would no doubt have been a much more complete one; for in this very period of 1850–1855, the brilliant progress of Illinois has been such as no former period ever witnessed.

. .P

nessee, 49,508 from Kentucky, 64,219 from Ohio, 2158 from Michigan, 30,953 from Indiana, 7288 from Missouri, 1511 from Iowa, 1095 from Wisconsin, 3 from California, 16 from the Territories, and 343,618 were natives of Illinois.

Of those born in foreign countries, 18,628 were natives of England, 27,786 of Ireland, 4661 of Scotland, 572 of Wales, 38,511 of Germany, inclusive of Austria, 3396 of France, 70 of Spain, 42 of Portugal, 33 of Belgium, 220 of Holland, 43 of Italy, 1635 of Switzerland, 27 of Russia, 93 of Denmark, 2415 of Norway, 1123 of Sweden, 4 of Greece, 3 of Asia, 11 of Africa, 10,699 of British America, 30 of Mexico, 12 of South America, 75 of the West Indies, 9 of the Sandwich Islands, and 495 from various other countries.

Farming lands. - In the year 1850, Illinois had 76,208 farms, containing 12,037,412 acres, making an average of 158 acres to each farm, 5,039,545 of which were improved, and 6,997,867 still uncultivated. The value of these 76,208 farms was estimated at $96,133,290 ; hence the average value of each farm was $1261. The value of the agricultural implements amounted to $6,405,561.

The live stock, of cattle, was estimated at $24,209,258; of horses, $267,653; of asses and mules, $10,573: making an aggregate of $278,226, against $199,235 in 1840; of milk cows, $294,671; of oxen, $76,156; of bulls, heifers, and cattle fit for slaughter, $541,209; neat cattle in the aggregate, $912,036, against $626,274 in 1840; of sheep, $894,043, against $395,672 in 1840; of hogs, $1,915,907, against $1,495,254 in 1840. The value of the slaughtered cattle in the year 1850, amounted to $4,972,286; and the value of the live stock of cattle in 1850, to $30,000,000.

The following were the crops in 1850 : --9,414,575 bushels of wheat, against 3,335,393 in the year 1840; 83,364 bushels of rye, against 88,197 in 1840; 10,087,241 bushels of oats, against 4,988,008 in 1840; 57,646,984 bushels of Indian corn, agairst 22,634,211 in 1840; 2,514,861 bushels of Irish, and 157,433 bushels of sweet potatoes — making an aggregate of 2,672,294 bushels of potatoes, against 2,025,520 bushels in 1840; 110,795 bushels of barley, against 82,251 in 1840; 184,504 bushels of buckwheat, against 57,884 in 1810; 601,952 tons of hay, against 164,932 in 1840. Hence it follows, that of the produce of the fields, rye alone has decreased, all the other species of corn having increased, and that wheat. and Indian corn have advanced by the highest ratio.

The harvest of 1855 is roughly estimated at 20,000,000 bushels of wheat, 20,000,000 bushels of oats, 130,000,000 bushels of Indian corn, and 1,000,000 tons of hay.

Other farm produces in the year 1850, were :- 3551 lbs. of hops, against 17,742* in 1840; 3427 lbs. of cloverseed; 14,380 lbs. of seeds of other species of grass ; 12,526,543 lbs. of butter; 1,278,225 lbs. of cheese — making an aggregate of 13,804,768 lbs., against 428,175 lbs. in 1840; 82,814 bushels of peas and beans. The value of the produce of the market-gardens amounted to $127,494 ; fruitery, etc., $1,146,049, against $126,756 in 1840; wax and honey, to 869,444 lbs., against 29,173 in 1840; articles of produce for domestic use, to $1,155,902; flaxseed, to 10,787 bushels; flax, to 160,063 lbs.; maple sugars, to 248,904 lbs.; molasses, to 8,354 gallons; tobacco, to 841,394 lbs., versus 564,326 in 1840; wool, to 2,150,113 lbs., versus 650,007 in 1840; silk cocoons, to 47 lbs., versus 1150 in 1840; wine, to 2997 gallons, versus 474 in 1840.

Of manufactories, Illinois, in the year 1850, had 3164 establishments, doing business with a capital of $6,385,387, consuming $8,915,173 worth of raw materials, employing 11,632 men and 433 women, paying wages to the amount of $3,286,249, and manufacturing goods to the value of $17,236,073.

Of manufactories of woollen articles, Illinois, in the year 1850, had 16, operating with a capital of $154,500, consuming of raw materials 396,964 lbs. of wool and 987 tons of coal, valued in the aggregate at $115,367 ; employing 124 men and 54 women, and manufacturing goods to the value of $206,572.

Of manufactories of pig iron, there were but two, having a capital. of $65,000. These consumed 5500 tons of ore, estimated at $15,500, and while employing 150 laborers, manufactured 2700 tons of pig iron, valued at $70,200.

* This statement, though, like all the preceding, taken from the United States census, appears to us erroneous; for as, during the last few years, a remarkable increase has taken place, both in the brewing and consumption of beer, it seems scarcely credible, that the cultivation of hops should have so considerably fallen off.

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