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Of iron foundries, there were 29, doing business with a capital of $260,400. These expended $172,330 for 4818 tons of pig iron, 50 tons of old iron, besides fuel, &c.; employing 332 laborers, and manufacturing goods to the value of $441,185.
Of breweries and distilleries, there were 52, having a business capital of $303,400, consuming 98,000 bushels of barley, 48,700 bushels of rye, and 703,500 bushels of Indian corn, occupying 274 hands, and furnishing a supply of 27,925 barrels of beer, &c., and 2,315,000 gallons of whiskey, and various other spirits.
Lastly, Illinois possesses a salt manufactory, operating with a capital of $2500, consuming $2000 worth of raw material, employing 3 hands, and producing 20,000 bushels of salt, estimated at $6000.
Of churches, there are 1223 in the State, having 486,576 members, and appertaining to the various denominations, as follows: The Baptists have 282 churches, with 94,130 members; the Christians, 69 churches, with 30,864 members; the Congregationalists, 46 churches, with 15,626 members; Dutch Reformed, 2 churches, with 875 members; Episcopalians, 27 churches, with 14,000 members; Free, 2 churches, with 750 members; Friends, 6 churches, with 1550 members; German Reformed, 3 churches, with 280 members; Lutherans, 42 churches, with 16,640 members; Methodists, 405 churches, with 178,452 members; Moravians, 2 churches, with 400 members; Presbyterians, 206 churches, with 83,129 members; Roman Catholics, 59 churches, with 29,100 members; Swedenborgians, 2 churches, with 140 members; Tunkers, 4 churches, with 1225 members; Unionists, 30 churches, with 8625 members; Unitarians, 4 churches, with 1050 members; Universalists, 2 churches, with 2000 members; various other small sects, 25 churches, with 7740 members. The whole church property amounted to $1,482,182.
Of places for education there were : — 4052 public schools, with 4248 teachers, 125,725 pupils, and a yearly revenue of $349,712; 83 academies and private schools, with 160 teachers, 4244 scholars, and a yearly income of $10,488; 4 colleges, with 29 professors, and 223 students. Whole amount of lands appropriated by the Federal Goverument for educational purposes, up to 1st of January, 1854: for schools, 978,755 acres; for universities, 23,040 acres; making an aggregate of 1,001,795 acres.
According to the army register for 1851, the militia of Illinois aumbered 170,359, in all the departments, 4168 of whom were commissioned officers, the residue (165,741) being non-commissioned officers, privates, and musicians. Among the commissioned officers there were 30 general officers, 79 general staff officers, 1297 field officers, and 3192 company officers.
Of libraries, Illinois, in 1850, possessed 152, with 62,486 volumes, 33 of which, with 35,982 volumes, were public libraries; 29 school libraries, with 5875 volumes; 86 Sunday-school libraries, with 12,829 volumes ; 4 college libraries, with 7800 volumes.
In the year 1828, 4 newspapers were edited; in 1840, 52; in the year 1850, 107; among which were 7 monthly and 1 quarterly periodical. These 107 newspapers, &c., issued, in the year 1850, 5,102,276 numbers, and may be classified as follows: literary and miscellaneous, 22; neutral, 1; political, 73; religious, 8; scientific, 3.
In 1850, 797 paupers were in the State, who were either wholly or to some extent provided for and relieved.
Of criminals, 316 were condemned during the year expiring June 1st, 1850; on that day the number of those imprisoned for crime, &c., amounted to 252.
Of the 851,470 inhabitants of the State in 1850, 41,283 were unable to read or write; 35,336 of these were born in the United States, and 5947 in foreign countries; 40,054 of them were whites, to wit: 16,633 males and 23,421 females ; and 1229 were colored people, to wit: 605 males and 624 females.
CLIMATE, SOIL, PLANTS, AND ANIMALS. *
Upon looking at the map of the Upper Mississippi, we have before us that very extensive net of streams and rivers which is bounded in the west, below the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi, by the Ozark Mountains, through which the Arkansas and Red Rivers have forced their passage; and in the east, by the projecting ridge of the Alleghany Mountains. High lands, elevated 2000 feet above the level of the sea, divide this district in the north from the Arctic river-district, together with which it was undoubtedly covered by a vast sheet of water, at an early period of the formation of the earth; the hills separating it from Lake Superior, which is situated 600 feet above the level of the sea, do not rise more than 1000 feet above it, and the boundary line dividing it from the river-district of the St. Lawrence, runs along the shores of the other great lakes. No chain of moun
* Dr. Fred. Brendel, of Peoria, to whom we are indebted for many valuable contributions to this chapter, has for several years pursued with great zeal the study of the natural history of Illinois, and would be very happy, could he meet with fellow-laborers in this work; for which reason we take the liberty of calling the attention of those of our readers, who take an interest in Natural Sciences, to the following lines :
“A thorough examination of such an extensive State as Illinois, with respect to all the various branches of natural science, is a difficult undertaking for a single man, but might be easily accomplished by a number of scientific men, co-operating in the different parts of the country. Meteorological observations, catalogues of the plants, animals, and petrifactions found in the various districts, it would be advisable to publish in one annual collective report; specimens contributed from every district would form a State Museum; and naturalists, residing at distances from each other, would much more enhance and accelerate the advancement of knowledge by mutual correspondence, than by pursuing separate studies, each one for himself. Any person who is willing thus to promote the interests of science, will find me ready to assist him."
FREDERICK BRENDEL, M. D., Peoria, Illinois. tains, therefore, properly speaking, separates in the north this enormous territory, a small portion of which constitutes the State of Illinois, from the plateaux projecting to the north, which circumstance must necessarily exercise a decisive influence upon the climate of the State, situated as it is between the 432 and 37th degrees of north latitude, and separated by seven degrees from the Gulf of Mexico.
A sea open at all times of the year separates Europe from the North Pole; and the Mediterranean Sea washes between it and Africa; this will sufficiently account for her moderate climate. A frozen regiou sending during winter its icy blasts after the fying sun, bounds North America on the north, while her southern coast, penetrated in the sum. mer by the almost perpendicular rays of a burning sun, radiates its accumulated heat to the north. This will explain why a country situated within the same degrees of latitude with Spain and Italy, has cold winters and hot summers.
Illinois has an average temperature, which, if compared with that of Europe, equals that of Middle Germany; its winter is more severe than that at Copenhagen, and her summer as warm as those of Milan or Palermo. Compared with the other States of the Union, Northern Illinois possesses a temperature similar to that of Northern Pennsylvania or Southern New York, while the temperature of Southern Illi. inois will not differ much from that of Kentucky or Virginia.
As far as we know, exact observations of the state of the weather have not yet been published in Illinois; we, therefore, contine ourselves to the observations of the celebrated Dr. Engelmann, at St. Louis, which at least serve for one part of Illinois. From his observations of 20 years we infer, that at a middle height of the barometer, of 29.477, (105' above the lowest height of water in the Mississippi), the greatest difference in a year (1852) amounted to 1" 5'', and that at a middle temperature of + 51° 8 F. (= + 13° 79 C. = + 10° 13 R.), very great fluctuations prevailed.
At the coldest day, (Feb. 8, 1835,) the thermometer stood – 25° F. (= -31° 6 C. = — 25° 3 R.), while during the hottest days in July, 1833, '34, '38, and '41, and in August, 1834, the mercury indicated a little more than + 100° F., (= + 38° C. = + 30° R.), making a difference of 125° F., (= 69° 4 C. = 55° 5 R.) Very great and rapid changes often take place in the temperature ; thus, the
temperature from the 16th to the 17th day of March, 1852, fell, within 17 hours, about 51° F., (=28°3 C. = 22° 5 R.) As for the rest, the thermometer very rarely falls below 0 F. (= -17° 7 C. =14° 2 R.); on Jan. 19th, 1852,* the coldest day for 20 consecutive years, the mercury ranged — 12° F. (= -24° 4C. =- 19° 5 R.) The lowest temperature is generally above 0 F., and on an average ranges highest in July; then follow June and August; January being the coldest month. The first frost generally appears on the 26th of October, the last on the 6th of April, 203 days thius intervening between the first frost in autumn and the last in spring. The earliest frost appeared on Oct. 4th, 1836, and the latest, May 2d, 1851.†
The prevailing winds are either western or south-eastern. Storms generally come from the west or north-west, in the summer sometimes from the south. The severest storms are those coming from the west, as, on considering that they traverse the entire space between the. Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi, within 24 hours, and reach the Atlantic coast within the next 24 hours, will be placed beyond a doubt. A clear sky and dry air prevail while they sweep over the Mississippi Valley, and not before having reached the east, will they be accompa
* The winter of 1855–6 alone, which reigned with almost unexampled rigour throughout the United States, makes an exception; we here subjoin a report of the state of the thermometer on the coldest days of the winter, in the folowing places in Illinois :
On January 4th, 1856, at Aurora, Kane Co., 22 degrees below zero; at Sterling, Whiteside Co., 26°; at Dixon, Lee Co., 23°; at Sycamore, De Kalb Co., 24°; at Waukegan, Lake Co., 21°; at Moline, Rock Island Co., 18o. On January 5th, at Elgin, Kane Co., 26°; at Moline, 14°; January 6th, at Moline, 30°; January 8th, at Sterling, 21°; at Springfield, Sangamon Co., 20°; at Rock Island, 22° ; at Bloomington, McLean Co., 18°; at Belvidere, Boone Co., 22°; at Macomb, McDonough Co., 17o; at Elgin, 18°; at Moline, 20°; at Oquawka, Henderson Co., 250; at Peoria, 14°. January 9th, at Springfield, 24°; at Chicago, 24o; Alton, Madison Co., 22°; at Aurora, 30°; at Geneseo, Henry Co., 29°; at Jerseyville, Jersey Co., 20°; at Macomb, 20°; at Mendota, La Salle Co., 28°; at Monmouth, Warren Co., 28°; at Morris, Grundy Co., 20°; at Paris, Edgar Co., 30°; at Peoria, 20°; and at Sterling, 21°.
+ In the summer of 1850, while the temperature of St. Louis ranged very high, that of St. Clair Co. was continually lower, by about 2° R., than the former, which difference was probably in consequence of the calcareous soil of the city.