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Let us now calculate in money, the probable produce of an acre.

Basing our calculation upon the average ruling prices of the various products, during the first half of January, 1856, and upon the above given average rates of bushels per acre, we should estimate every acre to be worth, if planted with

Indian corn........
Wheat
Rye ...
Potatoes..
Oats......

$18 67
30 48
20 30
60 06
11 00
42 23

Barley .....

Basing our calculation, however, upon the above mentioned highest prices, we find every acre to be worth, if planted with

Indian corn
Wheat.
Rye ..
Potatoes...
Oats.......
Barley........

$30 24
38 40
29 00
143 00
15 40
61 50

Having shown by the preceding, how much an acre of land at an average rate of produce, and at average prices, must yield, and how much at those highest prices, paid in the first half of January, 1856, (which latter calculation is also based on the average rate of produce), we now turn to the profitableness of farming itself.

Profits of farming.—Here, also, we cannot do better than to refer to the observations and statements made by practical men,

Edward Bebb, Esq., of Fountaindale, Winnebago Co., addressed to us, gives the following account of his first crop, on newlybroken land:

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“In the summer of 1851, we had sixty-five acres of an eighty acre lot broken. In the spring of 1852, we fenced the whole eighty and sowed it with oats. The following is a statement of the crop:

$100 00

320 00 130 00

80 acres of land, entered at $1 25 per acre.
Fencing 80 acres with post and board, (two boards only being

put on)....
Breaking 65 acres, at $2 00 per acre...............
Seed, 130 bushels, at 12 cents per bus., (oats being very cheap

that spring)...... Sowing and harrowing, at 37 cents per acre .................. 5 acres mown and fed before harvest, no account kept. Reaping 60 acres, at 50 cents per acre............... Binding 60 acres, at 75 cents per acre .............. Threshing ....

15 65 24 37

30 00 45 00 120 00

Total cost.....
3000 bushels of oats, sold in January, at 30 cents per bushel...

$785 02 900 00

Balance in favor of crop......

114 98

In the foregoing statement I made no mention of the straw, which being cut before it was dead ripe, and gotten up without any rain, wintered, with scarcely any other feed, 25 head of cattle.”

Wm. Waite, Esq., Rock Island Co., in the spring of 1853, purchased 80 acres of prairie land, at $4 50; his account of the first year is as follows:

80 acres of prairie, at $4 50 per acre ................

$360 00 Breaking 60 acres, at $2 50 per acre.........

150 00 Fencing 60 acres, at $1 00 per rod, 400 rods of board fence ... 400 00 Seed for 40 acres with winter wheat, 11 bushels to the acre, at $100 per bushel......

60 00 Sowing and harrowing, 75 cents per acre.............................

30 00 Harvesting and marketing, $1 50 per acre....................

60 00 Threshing and cleaning, 1,100 bushels, at 10 cents per bush... 110 00 Hauling 15 miles to rail-road, 6 cents per bushel .........

66 00 Ploughing 20 acres for corn in the spring, at 75 cents... ..... $15 00 Marking off and planting...

15 00 Cultivating, at $1 25 per acre

25 00 Harvesting, at $1 per acre......

20 00 Threshing, and hauling 15 miles to rail-road, 1000 bushels, at 10 cents per bushel.........

100 00 Total cost of farm and crops.........

$1411 00 1100 bushels of wheat, at $1 15 per bushel, $1,265 00 1000 bushels of corn, at 28 cents per bushel...... 280 00 Total amount of crops.

1545 00 Profits of 60 acres, after paying all expenses .....

$134 00 and 20 acres of land unbroken.—This farm is now worth $25 per acre.

Jos. Reinhardt, Esq., of Granville, Putnam Co., gives the following statement of the first year's crop of 80 acres, which he purchased at an original cost of $15 per acre :

80 acres prairie land, at $15.

$1200 00 Breaking 70 at $2 50.......

175 00 320 rods fence, (480 rods would have been necessary, but for

160 adjoining rods of the neighbor's fence), at $1......... 320 00 Second ploughing and harrowing at $1 50...

105 00 Sowing 105 bushels of wheat, at $1 25......

131 25 Harvesting, at $1 per acre....

70 00 Threshing and transporting, at $1 80 per acre......................

126 00 Total cost

$2127 25 Assuming, at a moderate calculation, every, acre to yield 20 bush els, we have 1400 bushels, at $1 25.......

1750 00

Hence, the 80 acres, after the first harvest, will cost only..... $377 25

Relying on my own experience, I have based the above calculation upon the highest cost, an average price of wheat, and the low produce of 20 bushels per aere, although I myself have reaped 25 bushels, and many others from 30 to 35 bushels. I also assumed only 70 acres fit to be broken, as, among 80 acres of prairie lands, there are in most cases 10 acres of lowland, best fit for meadows. Every such acre may be safely supposed to yield 2 tons of hay, worth from $2 to $4 per ton, which amount does not form one of the items of my calculation.

Jno. S. Peironnel, Esq., of Peru, gives the following statement of a crop from 10 acres, purchased by him April, 1855, at $30 per acre:

J. S. PEIRONNEL,

To 10 acres of land at $30 per acre......................
66 6 months' interest...
• 3} days' ploughing..
“ 1 do harrowing..
“ 14 do drilling ....
" 5 days with cultivator and shovel plough
“ paying for husking ..........
" shelling and taking to market........

Dr. $300 00

9 00 8 75 2 50 2 75 8 75 28 90 24 00

$384 65 J. S. PEIRONNEL,

CR. By 723 bushels of corn, at 53 cents.

. $383 19 “ corn cobs from same... ......... ..............................

8 00 $391 19

Due J. S. Peironnel, above every cost...

$6 54

Ralph Anderson, Esq., of Silver Creek, Stephenson Co., estimates the costs and receipts of 34 acres, as follows:

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A correspondent of the Alton Courier, writes the following from Shipman:

“I saw a communication in the Courier,' over the signature of · Amand,' in which it is stated that Col. Wm. B. Warren, of Jacksonville, had a crop of wheat which netted him $20 per acre, clear of all expenses, at present prices, and that the wheat crop of Mr. Constant, of Sangamon County, netted him $17 per acre.

“ They were certainly profitable crops. I threshed my crop of Maryland white wheat, a few days ago, a small one it is true. The thresher measured 317 bushels, the most of wbich was measured by him into the sacks of farmers, for seed, at $1 25 per bushel. I have been asked a great many times how many acres of ground that crop of wheat grew on (with numberless other questions), and my answer invariably was, “about eight.' I have since measured the ground, and there was a little less than 7 acres. I submit the fole lowing items, which were set down as they occurred:

EXPENSES.

To 10 bushels of wheat for seed, at $1 25.........
Two days with cultivators, one horse, and one hand, at $1 50..
Cutting off cornstalks in spring .....
Cutting 74 acres, at 75 cents..........
Nine hands for binding and shocking, at $1 25......
Three days stacking, with 2 hands......................................
Threshing 317 bushels, at 5 cents.
Hands and team for same with same.........................................

$13 50

3 00 1 00 5 81 11 25

9 00 15 85 15 00

$74 41

CREDIT.

By 317 bushels of wheat at $1 25.......

$396 25

Net profit..........
Which would be a little more than $41 49 per acre.

$320 84

W. R. Harris, Esq., of Palmyra, Lee Co., makes the following communication concerning the management of his farm ::

“I commenced here in the spring of 1847, with a capital of $700, with which I purchased twenty acres of timber, and one hundred and sixty acres of prairie land. The first season I broke up fifty-five acres, with a pair of horses and one yoke of oxen, breaking two acres per day. The third year, I added eighty acres to my farm, and hired fifty acres broke at $2 per acre. The fourth year, I hired ten acres more broke, at $2 25 per acre, which gave me one hundred and fifteen acres under cultivation. This is all that I have had under cultivation, and I have sold the product this year for over $2000. I have now been engaged here for about eight years, and my capital of $700 has increased to between $8000 and $10,000.”

Charles W. Murtfeldt, Esq., of Oregon, Ogle Co., gives the following agcount of the management of 80 acres, purchased by him at $20 per acre, and planted, 53 of them with wheat, and the remaining 27 with Indian corn:

10 per cent interest on $1600, being the purchase money of

the 80 acres, at $20 per acre....
Taxes.....
Ploughing, at $1 per acre...
Sowing and harrowing 53 acres at 75 cents.....
Cutting and binding 53 acres, at $1.
Stacking of the wheat..
Seed of wheat.....
Seed of Indian corn....... ....................................................
Planting and cultivating Indian corn............
Harvesting Indian corn........
Threshing 1100 bushels of wheat, at 5 cents...
Other work and labor.

$160 00

7 00 80 00 39 75 53 00 39 00 88 00

1 75 50 00 30 00 55 00 30 00

$633 50

The receipts were, for 1100 bus. of wheat, at $1......... $1100
For 750 bushels of Indian corn, at 50 cents ........... ..375

1475 00

Gain ..............

$841 00

Rev. Jno. S. Barger, of Clinton, De Witt Co., in a letter dated 22d Jan., 1855, states the following facts in relation to the management of his farm :

“ From 1848 to 1850, I purchased in De Witt County, and nearly adjoining Clinton, 400 acres of fine farming land, through which the Illinois Central Railway passes; and in the vicinity three timbered lots, containing 140 acres, making in all 540 acres, at a cost of $1513 19. In the spring of 1853 I determined to make my farm, and accordingly contracted for the breaking of 300 acres, at $600; also for making 400 rods of fence, at $4 75 per 100 rails in the fence, equal $494 19; making altogether, $1094 19. Having obtained

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