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the Atlas Bank, 50 in the City Bank, 50 in the Hamilton, 55 in the Massachusetts, 50 in the Market, 75 in the North, 129 in the New England, 26 in the Suffolk, 142 in the State, and 76 in the Union. Required the number of shares held in all the banks.
7. The Marblehead Marine Insurance Company owns 200 shares in the Suffolk Bank, 150 in the Globe, 150 in the New England, 100 in the Eagle, 100 in the Columbian, 40 in the City, 45 in the Atlantic, 25 in the North, and 120 in the Marblehead. How many shares does the Company hold in these banks?
8. The Essex Insurance Company owns 185 shares in Naumkeag Bank, 142 in the Commercial, 144 in the Exchange, 153 in the Asiatic, 22 in the Mercantile, 9 in the Salem, 74 in the Merchants', 75 in the North, and 20 in the Shawmut. Required the number of shares held in all these banks.
9. The Old Colony Insurance Company owns 35 shares in the Wareham Bank, 40 in the Railroad Bank, 15 in the Union Bank, 20 in the Market Bank, 15 in the New England, 24 in the Old Colony Bank, 25 in the Merchants', 21 in the Plymouth, 10 in the Massachusetts, and 20 in the Boston. shares are held by the Company in all these banks ?
10. In sinking a water shaft in a coal mine in Rhode Island, the following depths were penetrated : 9 feet of sand and gravel, 12 of dark-colored slate, 23 of graywacke, 41 of soft black slate, 50 of hard brown slate, 10 of gray slate, 15 of very hard brown slate, 12 of gray freestone, and 4 of coal. What was the distance from the surface of the ground to each of the above rocks? How deep was the shaft sunk?
11. The highest point of land in Waltham is 570 feet in height. How much higher is this hill than Prospect Hill, in the same place, which has an elevation of 470 feet? Than Bear Hill, which has an elevation of 510 feet? How much higher is Bear Hill than Prospect Hill ?
12. Mr. Allen had 25 dollars, Mr. Abbot paid him 17 dollars, and Mr. Dickerson paid him 19 dollars; he then paid a debt of 31 dollars, and bought some flour for 11 dollars; he spent the remainder of his money for broadcloth, which he sold for 35 dollars, and with the money gained on the broadcloth he bought 20 bushels of corn, which he sold for 24 dollars. How much money did he then have? How much more than he had at first?
13. Mr. Kaime bought 17 bushels of quinces for 35 dollars. He sold 9 bushels of them to Mr. Ballou for 26 dollars, and the
remainder to Mr. Cook for 33 dollars. He then spent all his money for 50 bushels of apples which he sold for 75 dollars. With the money gained on the apples he bought sugar, which he sold for 11 dollars more than he gave for it. How much money had he then? How much did he gain on his quinces, apples, and sugar ? How much more on the apples than on the quinces and sugar ?
14. A man carried 5 loads of potatoes to market. There were 23 bushels in the first load, 19 in the second, 25 in the third, 27 in the fourth, and 29 in the fifth. How many bushels were there in all ? He received 18 dollars for the first load, and 100 dollars for them all. How much did he receive for the last four loads? He received 14 dollars for the second load. How much did he receive for the last three ? He received 21 dollars for the third load. How much did he receive for the last two? He received 23 dollars for the fourth load. How much did he receive for the last ?
15. A farmer, who raised 134 bushels of corn, sold 97 bushels, and kept the rest for his own use. How many bushels did he keep? He raised so many oats that after selling 96 bushels to one man, 43 to another, and 87 to another, he had 58 bushels left. How many bushels of oats did he raise? He raised 124 tons of hay, of which he sold 37 tons. How many tons did he keep? He gathered 827 bushels of apples, of which 136 bushels were cider apples, 87 bushels were early apples, 128 bushels were fall apples, and the remainder were winter apples. How many were winter apples? From the cider apples he made 20 barrels of cider; he sold 79 bushels of early apples, 117 bushels of fall apples, and 443 bushels of winter apples, using the rest in his family. How many bushels of each kind did he use ? How
many bushels of apples did he sell ? He raised 234 bushels of potatoes, of which he used 38 bushels, selling the rest. How many
did he sell? He received 73 dollars for the corn, 93 dollars for the oats, 628 dollars for the hay, 75 dollars for the early apples, 87 dollars for the fall apples, 341 dollars for the winter apples, and 150 dollars for the potatoes. How much did he receive for all he sold?
16. A news-boy sold on Monday some papers for 96 cents, which cost him 54 cents; on. Tuesday for 87 cents, which cost him 39 cents, and on Wednesday for 93 cents, which cost him 49 cents. How many cents did he gain on what he sold in three days ?
17. Jemmy Daily had 17 cents with which he purchased some papers, which he sold so as to gain 14 cents on them.
With the money he thus received he purchased some more papers, which he sold so as to gain 28 cents on them. After giving his mother 9 cents to buy some bread with, he spent the rest of his money for papers, which he sold so as to gain 37 cents on them. He now gave 43 cents to his mother, keeping the rest to buy some more papers with. How many cents did he keep?
18. A man started from Boston for the purpose of seeking his fortune, taking with him 675 dollars. He first went to New York, from thence to Philadelphia, and there took ship for San Francisco. His fare from Boston to New York was 4 dollars, and from New York to Philadelphia 3 dollars. While stopping in Philadelphia he was robbed of his valise, containing 100 dollars. His passage to San Francisco cost him 225 dollars. After remaining in San Francisco 1 week and 2 days at an expense of 27 dollars, he started for the mines. He worked at the “wet diggings ” 30 days, and at the "dry diggings ” 15 days. He sold the gold he got at the “wet diggings” for 375 dollars, and that which he got at the “dry diggings” for 87 dollars. The expenses of his trip to the mines were 117 dollars. From San Francisco he went to Calcutta, paying 50 dollars for his passage, and immediately upon his arrival he went into business. At the end of three months his health became so poor that he was obliged to give up business and return to Boston. His profits while in Calcutta were 347 dollars. His passage to Boston cost him 115 dollars. How much money had he when he arrived at Boston? Had he more or less than when he left Boston, and how much?
A. All nations, excepting perhaps the most barbarous, have some kind of money ; but each nation has a system peculiar to itself, and generally differing from every other in its denominations, coins, &c. The people of the United States reckon money in dollars and cents; the English reckon it in pounds, shillings and pence; and the French, in francs and centimes.
So, too, each nation has a peculiar system of weights and measures, some of the most important of which are illustrated in the following
TABLES OF MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. B. The money of the United States is called Federal Money.
TABLE OF FEDERAL MONEY.
10 mills = 1 cent.
10 dollars = 1 eagle. The coins of the United States are,- the dollar; the half-dollar, or fifty-cent piece; the quarter-dollar, or twenty-five-cent piece; the dime, or ten-cent piece; the half-dime, or five-cent piece; the three-cent piece; the cent; the eagle, or ten-dollar piece; the double eagle, or twenty-dollar piece; the half-eagle, or five-dollar piece; and the quarter-eagle, worth 2.1 dollars.
The dollar is coined both of gold and silver; the coins worth more than a dollar are of gold, and the others, with the exception of the cent, are of silver. The cent is of copper.
C. The money used in England is called English, or Sterling Money
TABLE OF STERLING MONEY.
4 farthings = 1 penny.
= 1 shilling
20 shillings = 1 pound. When numbers expressing values in Sterling money, are used, the character £ marks the pounds ; s. the shillings; d. the pence; and qr. the farthings.
Illustration. 27 pounds, 18 shillings, 5 pence, and 3 farthings, may be written thus : 27£, 18s. 5d. 3 qrs.; or thus : 27, 18, 5, 3. Farthings are also frequently expressed as fourths of a penny. Thus, 7d. 3qrs.=73d., and both forms may be read as 7 pence and 3 farthings.
The coin representing the pound is called the Sovereign. Its value in United States money varies from 4 dollars and 83 cents, to 4 dollars and 86 cents, but is usually about 4 dollars and 84 cents. There are several other coins used in England, of which we will mention only two, viz. : the Guinea, or 21 shilling piece, and the Crown, or 5 shilling piece.
D. Almost all articles, except gold, silver, and jewels, are weighed by what is called Avoirdupois Weight.
TABLE OF AVOIR DU POIS WEIGHT. 16 drams
= 1 ounce. 16 ounces
1 pound. 28 pounds = l quarter. 4 quarters
= 1 hundred weight. 20 hundred weight = 1 ton. The abbreviations made use of in this weight, are T. for ton, cwt. for hundred weight, qr. for quarter, lb. for pound, oz. for ounce, and dr. for dram. For example: 5 T. 17 cwt. 3 qr. 13 lb. 8 oz. 7 dr. 5 tons, 17 hundred weight, 3 quarters, 13 pounds, 8 ounces, and 7 drams.
In several of the States of the Union, laws have been made fixing the hundred weight at 100 lb., the ton at 2000 lb., and the quarter at 25 lb., but in the standard of the United States government, and in that of Great Britain, the weights are reckoned as in the table.
E. The weight used in weighing Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones, is called Troy Weight. This weight is also used in philosophical experiments.
TABLE OF TROY WEIGHT.
= 1 pennyweight. 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce.
12 ounces = 1 pound. In this weight, lb. stands for pound, oz. for ounce, dwt. for pennyweight, and gr. for grain. Illustration : — 13 pounds, 7 ounces, 18 pennyweights, 23 grains, may be expressed thus : 13 lb. 7 oz. 18 dwt. 23 gr.; or thus : 13, 7, 18, 23.
F. The weight used in compounding or mixing medicines, is called Apothecaries' Weight. Physicians write their prescriptions in this weight; but medicines are bought and sold by Avoirdupois Weight.
TABLE OF APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.
= 1 scruple.