« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
EXPLANATION OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS.
3. If equals be taken from equals the remainders are equal. 4. If equals be added to unequals the wholes are unequal.
5. If equals be taken from unequals the remainders are unequal.
6. Things which are double of the same are equal to one another.
7. Things which are halves of the same are equal to one another.
8. Magnitudes which coincide with one another, that is, which exactly fill the same space, are equal to one another.
9. The whole is greater than its part. 10. Two straight lines cannot inclose a space. 11. All right angles are equal to one another. 12. If a straight line meet two straight lines, so as to make the two interior angles on the same side of it taken together less than two right angles, these straight lines being continually produced shall at length meet on that side on which are the angles which are less than two right angles.
Explanation of Terms and Abbreviations.
An Axiom is a truth admitted without demonstration.
A Theorem is a truth which is capable of being de monstrated from previously demonstrated or admitted truths.
A Postulate states a geometrical process, the power of effecting which is required to be admitted.
A Problem proposes to effect something by means of admitted processes, or by means of processes or constructions, the power of effecting which has been previously demonstrated.
A Corollary to a proposition is an inference which may be easily deduced from that proposition.
= is used to express equality.
means angle, and A siguities triangle.
The sign > signifies “is greater than, and < "is less
than.” + expresses addition ; thus AB + BC is the line
whose length is the sum of the lengths of
AB and BC. expresses subtraction; thus AB BC is
the excess of the length of the line AB above
that of BC. AB? means the square described upon the
straight line AB.
From centres A aud B, and ra. dius=AB, describe circles.
To describe an equilateral triangle on a given finite straight line.
Let AB be the given straight line.
CONSTRUCTION.- From thecentre A, at the distance AB, describe the circle BCD (Post. 3).
From the centre B, at the distance BA, describe the circle ACE (Post. 3).
From the point C, in which the
circles cut one another, draw the straight lines CA, CB to the points A and B (Post. 1).
Then ABC shall be an equilateral triangle.
Because the point B is the centre of the circle ACE, BC is equal to BA (Def. 15).
Therefore AC and BC are each of them equal to AB.
But things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. Therefore AC is equal to BC (Ax. 1).
Therefore AB, BC, and CA are equal to one another.
Therefore the triangle ABC is equilateral, and it is described on the given straight line AB. Which was to be done.
AC and BC each=AB. AC=BC.
B as ceno tre.
Proposition 2.- Problem. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a given straight line.
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight line.
It is required to draw from the point A a straight line equal to BC.
CONSTRUCTION.–From the point A to B draw the straight Draw AB. line AB (Post. 1).
Upon A B describe the equilateral triangle DAB (Book I., 4 DAB eProp. 1).
quilateral. Produce the straight lines DA, DB, to E and F (Post. 2).
From the centre B, at the distance BC, describe the circle CGH, meeting DF in G (Post. 3).
From the centre D, at the distance DG, describe the circle GKL, meeting DE in L (Post. 3).
Then AL shall be equal to BC.
PROOF.— Because the point B is the centre of the circle CGH, BC is equal to BG (Def. 15).
Because the point D is the centre of the circle GKL, DL DL=DG. is equal to DG (Def. 15).
But DA, DB, parts of them, are equal (Construction).
Therefore the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG BGAL = (Ax. 3).
But it has been shown that BC is equal to BG.
But things which are equal to the same thing are equal to BG. one another, therefore AL is equal to BC (Ax. 1).
Therefore from the given point A a straight line AL has :: AL = been drawn equal to the given straight line BC.
Which was to be done.
Proposition 3.—Problem. From the greater of two given straight lines to cut off a part equal to the less.
Let AB and C be the two given straight lines, of which AB is the greater,
.:. AL and BC each
A as centre and radius AD
It is required to cut off from AB, the greater, a part equal to C, the less.
CONSTRUCTION.-From the point A draw the straight line AD equal to C (I. 2).
From the centre A, at the distance
AD, describe the circle DEF, cutting
Then AE shall be equal to C.
But C is also equal to AD (Construction).
Therefore, from AB, the greater of two given straight lines, a part AE has been cut off, equal to C, the less. Q. E. F.*
Proposition 4.-Theorem. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have also the angles contained by those sides equal to one another : they shall have their bases, or third sides, equal ; and the two triangles shall be equal, and their other angles shall be equal, each to each, viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite. Or,
If two sides and the contained angle of one triangle be respectively equal to those of another, the triangles are equal in every respect.
Let ABC, DEF be two triangles which have
each to each, viz., AB equal to
And the angle BAC equal to the angle EDF:-then
The base BC shall be equal to the base EF;
The triangle ABC shall be
equal to the triangle DEF; Q. E. F. is an abbreviation for quod erat faciendum, that is " which was to be done,”
And the other angles to which the equal sides are opposite, shall be equal, each to each, viz., the angle ABC to the angle DEF, and the angle ACB to the angle DFE.
PROOF.-For if the triangle ABC be applied to (or placed Suppose upon) the triangle DEF,
So that the point A may be on the point D, and the A DEF. straight line AB on the straight line DE,
The point B shall coincide with the point E, because AB is equal to DE (Hypothesis).
And AB coinciding with DE, AC shall coincide with DF, because the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF (Hyp.).
Therefore also the point C shall coincide with the point F, because the straight line AC is equal to DF (Hyp.).
But the point B was proved to coincide with the point E.
Because the point B coinciding with E, and C with F, if the base BC do not coincide with the base EF, two straight lines would enclose a space, which is impossible (Ax. 10).
Therefore the base BC coincides with the base EF, and is BC=EF. therefore equal to it (Ax. 8).
Therefore the whole triangle ABC coincides with the whole :. A ABC triangle DEF, and is equal to it (Ax. 8).
And the other angles of the one coincide with the remain- LABC = ing angles of the other, and are equal to them, viz., the angle 2 ACB = ABC to DEF, and the angle ACB to DFE.
Therefore, if two triangles have, &c. (see Enunciation). Which was to be shown.
The angles at the base of an isosceles triangle are equal to one another; and if the equal sides be produced, the angles upon the other side of the base shall also be equal.
Let ABC be an isosceles triangle, of which the side AB is AB = AC. equal to the side AC.
Let the straight lines AB, AC (the equal sides of the triangle), be produced to D and E.
The angle ABC shall be equal to the angle ACB (anglès at the base),