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Aristobulus his son followed, who proved his attachment to the Greeks by so many acts of kindness, that he was commonly styled Philhellene, or, as Josephus words it, xequarious μεν φιλέλλην.*

In this respect Alexander Jannæus, the son of Aristobulus, differed not from his father. He called the new soldiers, whom he armed with brazen shields, by the Greek name Hecatontomachoi.t Six thousand two hundred Greek soldiers were enrolled among his troops. I He built a beautiful castle at the Jordan, and gave it the Greek name Alexandrium (Alegávdpalov) from himself

. In fine, he was so ardent an admirer of the Greek philosophy, that he treated both Sadducees and Pharisees with the utmost attention during life, and when about to die, gave charge to his wife Alexandra, to allow the Pharisees the disposal of his body, and exacted from her the promise that she would make them the confidants of all her measures.

Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, succeeded to his father's throne. Too closely did he follow his parent's example in the patronage he extended to Hellenism, as the following decree, quoted from Josephus, will show :

The Athenians decreed him “ a crown of gold, the prize accorded by law, and the erection of a brazen statue in the temple of the people and the graces; they further decreed him a proclamation in the theatre of Bacchus at the representation of the new tragedies, and at the Gymnic contests. They ordered too, that every thing besides, which could be devised to his honor, should be bestowed upon him for his distinguished kindness to the Greeks.”' ||

To Hyrcanus succeeded Herod, surnamed, from his exploits, the Great. This monarch favored the Greeks and Hellenism (Ezanviouq) in an extraordinary manner. To the towns and cities which he built he gave Grecian names, and those 1 which had before Chaldee or Hebrew ones, he changed into Greek, as Samaria into Sebaste, Capharsaba into Antipatris, Betharamphtha into Livia, of which see more below. All the

* Joseph. ibid. cap. 11, 93, p. 665. + Id. ibid. cap. 12, § 5, p.

668. | Id. ibid. cap. 14, § 1, p. 672. g Id. ibid. cap. 15, § 5, p. 675. li Joseph. lib. 14 Ant. cap. 8, § 8, p. 698 i V. Relandum in Palæstina Illustrata, tom. 2.

money which he coined bore Greek inscriptions. He established the Olympic games at Jerusalem, built a theatre in the city, and an amphitheatre just without, both remarkable for their magnificence. In these, every five years, games, shows, plays, were exhibited after the manner of the Greeks. This quinquennial celebration he observed with the utmost pomp, despatching embassies to his neighbors, and inviting spectators from every quarter. Athletes flocked from all Greece, play-actors of various lines, and musicians, called in Greek Trueuzoi.* Hence it came that Herod was vulgarly called by the Jews Agonotheta, or giver of shows. He renewed the Olympic games at Elis, which had been allowed to drop into disuse through the poverty of the Eleans. So favorable was Herod to the Greeks and to Hellenism (E9.2.1,viouq) that Josephus calls him liberal to strangers and harsh to his own people. I The posterity of Herod carried themselves much after the same fashion in this matter. The Tetrarch and Agrippa bore the Greeks such good will, that several monuments were raised in Greece with inscriptions in honor of them. Those who would obtain further information on this head, may consult Spon's Miscellanea.

§ 16. Summary of the Chapter.

! But here we furl our sails, and review our voyage thus far. We have shown, I. That Alexander reduced Judea into subjection to Macedonian rule, and that some time afterwards the Jews in his army, returning to their native country, took the Greek language back with them. II. That Samaria was filled with Macedonians by the same monarch, the native inhabitants having been expelled. III. That the Jews, to the number of seventy thousand, brought the Greek language with them from Egypt to Judea. IV. That the Jews, who came out of Syria and settled again in their own land in immense numbers, coriveyed with them not only the Epocha and general habits of the Greeks, but also their language. V. That Jason the high priest endeavored to win over his fellow-countrymen to the rites of the Greeks, in which he easily succeeded.' VI. That Hellenism

* Joseph. lib. 15 Antiq. cap. 8, p. 766 et seq.
| Id. lib. 16, cap. 5, § 3, p. 798.
| Ibid. § 3 et § 4, p. 799.
Ś Sponius in Miscellaneis, p. 338, alibique.

was extensively prevalent under the pontificate of Menelaus. VII. That Antiochus Epiphanes sought with all his might to establish the Greek language, manners, and laws in Judea. VIII. That Antiochus established Greek military settlements at Jerusalem, which were intended to compel the Jews to einbrace Hellenism. IX. That the Samaritans of Sichem, of their own accord, adopted the Greek ritual and customs, and dedieated the temple on Gerizim to a Greek divinity. X. That Antiochus Epiphanes published a decree, that all the Jews should embrace Hellenism to the total abandonment of Judaism, on pain of death. XI. That the same Antiochus removed all pretexts for not adopting Hellenism. XII. That the high priest Alcimus greatly enlarged the dominion of Hellenism in Judea. XIII. That all Judea was covered by Grecian colonies for the term of nineteen years, which constrained the Jews to conform to Grecian usages (ad Græcissandum). XIV. That the Jews embraced the Greek philosophy and Grecian sects. XV. That the succeeding Jewish kings greatly favored the Hellenes and Hel. lenism.

As these points are satisfactorily proved, and it is confessed that the Jews were under the Grecian yoke one hundred and ninety years, is there one who can withstand the conviction, that the Jews universally adopted the Greek language, and allowed their own Chaldaic to drop out of use altogether?

I shall close this part with a quotation from the ingenious and learned Voss, too much to my purpose to be omitted.* “ Wheresoever, from the times of Alexander the Great, the Greeks obtained dominion, there did the Greek language prevail. It is absurd, therefore, to except from this description Judea alone, since Josephus and the Books of Maccabees sufficiently show how ready the Jews were to fall in with the Grecian customs, the greater part of them preferring to be considered Greeks rather than Jews. Even those of them who disliked the Greeks, were constrained to learn the language of their masters for their own interest's sake. Thus in Judea, just as in Egypt, Asia, and in the rest of Syria, no other language was heard than Greek.”

An Excursus upon the Hellenists of Acts VI. From what has been already advanced may be explained that • Isaac. Vossius de Sybillinis Oraculis, pag 290. SECOND SERIES, VOL. XI. NO. II.

14

indescribably vexed passage in the Acts of the Apostles relating to the Hellenists. The words are: Ev rais que as raírais πληθυνόντων των μαθητών, εγένετο γογγυσμός των Ελληνιστών προς τους Εβραίους, ότι παρεθεωρούντο εν τη διακονία τη καθημεpivi ai noi avrov “But in those days, when the number of the disciples was increased, there arose a murmuring of the Hellenists against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily distribution."

Two controversies of no light importance have taken their origin from this passage, namely, who were the Hellenists whose widows were neglected in the ministration, and, was there ever a Hellenistic tongue deriving its name from the persons called Hellenists. These we shall now notice in order.

1. Who were the Hellenists ?

Men of the highest erudition have entered keenly upon this first question, the different opinions upon it being, I. That of Peter de Marca, who supposed the Hellenists to be the Jews of the second dispersion in the Greek provinces, the dispersed of the Gentiles (gentilium sparsos) as they are called. "JI. That of Erasmus, who conceived the term Hellenists to refer to a faction rather than to a nation or tongue. III. That of Lightfoot, who supposed them to be the Jews who lived among the Gentiles, and were ignorant of Hebrew, speaking only the languages of the people among whom they dwelt.f Iy. That of Lewis Cappel, who thought the Hellenists were the Heathen. V. That of Isaac Voss, who supposed they were the Jews of the Roman party, or those who received Roman pay.I VI. That of Heinsius, (whom Grotius, Selden, and others, follow,) who will have it that by the name of Hellenists are designated Jews born out of Palestine, who used Greek books in their synagogues, and wrote and spake the peculiar dialect called Hellenistic.§ VII. That of Salmasius, differing widely from all these and partly following Beza, that the Hellenists were totally unacquainted with the Hebrew language, that they only spoke Greek, that they were not Jews in any sense, that there never was a Hellenistic language, nor do any traces of it now exist. If

• Act. Apost. cap. 6, v. 1. f Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr. in cap. 6 Act. Apost. t. 2. p. 707. | Is. Vossius de Sybill. Oraculis, cap. 16, p. 287. Ś Daniel Heinsius in Exercit. de Ling. Hellen. il Salmasius in Com. de Lingua Hellenistica. Sententias But of these conflicting opinions we may easily dispose by referring to the preceding pages, and attending to the observations which follow.

And, in the first place, it is clear, from what has been already noted in this chapter, that certain families of Greeks, either in the pay of the Jewish kings, or because of advantageous settlements granted them in the country, or because they saw themselves regarded with favor by the ruling powers, fixed themselves in Judea.

In the second place. These Hellenes, who migrated to Judea, did not conform to Jewish customs (non quidem Judaizabant), but continued faithful to their Hellenism, observing the manner of life prevailing among the Greeks. Therefore they did not embrace the Jewish religion but retained their own, just as the Jews do now among the Christians, the Greeks among the Latins, the Christians among the Turks, who all observe their respective religions amongst men of another creed. Nor did the children of these Greeks act differently from their parents. They also lived in the observance of the religion and general habits of their ancestors. This is the proper meaning of the words Ελληνίζειν and Ελληνισμός, especially among the writers of the church (apud sacros auctores). For ELINDÍTEIN does not refer so directly to the use of the language as to the observance of the religious and other customs of Greece, following the analogy of loudaitev," which in the writings of Paul is to follow the Jewish religion, and of Xplotiavitav, which is to adopt Christianity. Thus Gregory of Nyssa uses the term : Ουκούν όταν πρός τινα Ελληνιζόντων η διάλεξης ή, καλώς αν έχοι ταύτην ποιείσθαι του λόγου την αρχήν, πότερον είναι το θείον υπείληφε, ή τω των αθέων συμφέρεται δόγματι: «When, therefore, you dispute with any of the Hellenists, it will be well to begin with this question : does he believe in a God, or is he of the atheists, who believe in none.”+ Socrates, in like manner, in his Ecclesiastical History, opposes Ελληνίζειν το Χριστιανίζειν.

has omnes suo more exponit doctissimus Fabricius in Biblioth. Græca, lib. 4, cap. 5, p. 225.

* Paulus, Ep. ad Galat. cap. 2, v. 14.

† Nyssenus, Præfat. in Orat. Catech. tom. 3, p. 44. Idem Oratione eadem, cap. 3, p. 49.

Socrates, Hist. Eccles. lib. 1, cap. 22, p. 185.

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