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was now the fifth campaign, during of Piedmont, to the frontiers of which their toils and sufferings were France, that the French soldiers had not less remarkable than their ex- occafion to exhibit their patience ploits. Hunger and nakedness had under hard fare. The coarse and frequently been their portion, in the disgusting food on which they sub. midit of their most splendid fuc- lifted, was compared to the Lacecesses. Had not the incredibly hard demonian broth of old, and none, it living they were used to in their was said, but Frenchmen, Greenown country, under the leverity of landers, or Scotch Highlanders, the old government, inured their could have fed on such melles. bodies to go through much fatigue It was by their perseverance, in with a slender luftenance, and few these extremities, that they maincomforts, they would not have tained the posts they occupied, and proved adequate to the lal ours and afforded time to Buona parte to join fcanly support to which they sub-them, at the head of those reinmitted, with fuch admirable patie forcements, united with which they ence, in the course of their war- marched to the conquest of Italy. fare. This part of their character This and their other atchieveattracted the notice of foreign na- ments were incellantly held out to tions as much as of their own; and the French armies, as incentives to it was often a matter of surprize, adhere faithfully to a cause which how they could perform the duties they had hitherto supported with fu of a military life with so stinted and much glory. One more campaign wretched a fare, and under so many would, probably, put an end to their discouragements.

toils; and, by procuring a giorious The army of Italy, in particular, peace, enable them to return to had exhibited astonishing examples their country, and lpend their future of fortitude in ihe most trying fitu- lives with honour and ease, in the ations; that their enemies had con- enjoyment of those remunerations cluded, from the reports of the promised them for their services. difficulties to which they were re- Such were the arguments and exduced, in procuring the means of pectatioris that animated the armies existence, that nothing else would of France at this period, especially be needed to compel them to aban- that which had performed such great don their position, and withdraw to things in Italy, and now hoped to France. It was previously, how- close the year by the capture of ever, to the present campaign, and Mantua, and the total fall of the while they were stationed among Austrian empire in Italy. the rocks, extending along the south

CHAP

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Campaign in Germany. Opposite Designs of the French and Auflrians.--

Successes of the French.-They invejl Ehrenbritslein.-Driven back, by the Archduke Charles, lo Dusseldorf.-The Division of the French Army under Moreau takes Fop at Strasburg.The Plan of Operations proposed by tiris General.-Crosses the Rhine.-Reduces the Fortress of Kehl.--Defeats the Auflrians, under Marshal Wurmser, near Philipsburg.-And in various and fucccffive Engagements.---The Anfirians retire, in order to wait for Reinforcements, into the Interior of Germany.-Junction of the French Troops under Jourdan and Kleber.These united reduce Frankfort.Succcfjes of Morcau in Suabia.-Cellation of Hoftilities betueen the French and the Princes of Wirtemberg and Baden.--Conduct of Pruffia.-A Pruffian Army takes Pofesion of Nuremberg:--Impolicy of the French in the Mode of raising Contributions.-Cause of this.-Depredations of the French in Germany.--Operutions of the French Armies under Moreau and Jourdan.Disa/lers of the Aufirians.-The Emperor represents the Situation of Germany, and his own Situation, in an Appeal to his Bohemian and Hungarian Subitels.-Diet of the Empire. -Partakes of the general Confernation of Germany.-Determination to open a Vegociation for Peace with France. -The Tide of Success turned again the French by the Germans, under the Archduke Charles. -Obftinate Engagements:---Maferly Retreat of the French Armies.-- Particularly of that under lloreau.-Consequences. The Arrians occupied in the Siege of Kehl.-Sally of the Gürrison there. -l'orious Gins.-Armifiice between the French and Austrians.The Diet of the Empire re-unimated by the enterprizing Spirit and Success of the Archduke Charles, solicitous to regain the Favour of the Imperial Court,

THILE Buonaparte was em- which important fortress, at the

ployed in a contest with the opening of the campaign, would Austrian arms and authority in Italy, have giren great reputation to the Jourdan and Moreau were engaged Austrian arms, and opened, at the in a conflict with the same formi- fame time, á pallage for the redable

enemy on the Rhine; which covery of the Netherlands. the French had long proposed to

The French were no less defirous make the boundary of the republic, of obtaining poffeffion of Mentz, in on the side of Germany.

their attempts on which they had The object to which the Austrians loft such numbers, and experienced were thought to direct their motions so many disappointments; but the was Luxembourg; the recovery of fortifications of this city had been

to considerably increased, and the with the greater part of their forces, garrifon so much strengthened, that, to the defence of the German fide unless the French could attack it on of the Rhine. the German, as well as on their The archduke Charles, who was own, side of the Rhine, the com- at the head of the Imperial army, munication with Germany would crossed that river accordingly, about furnish it with continual supplies of the eight of June, in such force, as men and provisions, and frustrate rendered the Auftrians considerably all their endeavours to reduce it. superior in strength to the French,

The opening of the campaign who, by this motion, were arrested was auspicious to the French. in their progress towards Mentz, Moving from Dusseldorf, that divi- which they had nearly approached : fion which had wintered there, and general Lefebre, one of their marched, under general Kleber, on best officers, was, after a most brave the right side of the Rhine, towards and skilful defence, defeated, on the a boly of Austrians, encamped at fifteenth, near Wetzlaar, and comthe river Sieg, to guard its pallage pelled to repass the Lahn, and retire against the French; but these de- towards the Seig, in his way back feated them on the first of June, to Dulleldorf. and, following their successes, en- General Jourdan, who commandcountered and routed another body, ed the French army, opposed to the commanded by the prince of Wir- archduke, after raising the siege of temberg, on the fourth, at Alten- Ehrenbritstein, near Siegburg, took kirchen, a place lying on the road a position where he hoped 10 make to Mentz, whither the French in- a stand, until the reinforcements he tended to force their way, in order expected had joined him; but the to intercept its communication with archduke, confiding in the goodness Germany. In the first of these en- of his troops, as well as the supegagements, the Austrians lost about riority of their numbers, attacked two thousand men; in the second, the division under Kleber, on the near three thousand.

twentieth, at Kirpen, and, aster a They had now crossed the Sieg, well-disputed action, compelled him and the Lahn, and were in pursuit to retire, and abandon all the couirof the troops they had defeated at try he had reduced, in his march the passage of these rivers: they from Dusseldorf; to which place had, at the same time, invested the he found it necellary to make a recelebrated fortress of Ehrenbritstein, treat with that part of the army the capture of which would have under his command, while the other given them the command of all the recrossed the Rhine at Neuwied neighbouring country:

with Jourdan, and reportelled their Happily for the Austrians, this was former positions, in order to prea place of extraordinary strength, vent the Austrians from deriving and not to be fubdued but by the any farther advantages from their greatest efforts and perseverance: fuccess. in order, however, to secure it ef. Manheim and Mentz leemed now fectually, together with the adjacent to lie open to the attacks of the parts, it was judged adviseable, by French; but, as the protection they the Auftrian commanders, to move, would receive from the Austrian

armies, armies, on the right side of the entrance to the French into that Rhine, would render such an at- circle. tempt extremely hazardons, they He had proposed to attempt a determined to beliege neither, but passage

passage in different places; and, in to leave their future reduction to

order the more easily to effect his the consequence of a plan of opera- design, to take posseffion of some of tions, which, if it fucceeded ac- the islands in that river, but most of cording to their expectations, would these happened to be overflowed, not fail to put them in poflession of and the others were poflefled by the those two cities, without the necef- Austrians, who were to be dislodged fity of a fiege.

before he could make good his When the archduke crofled to landing. To conceal his motions, the right of the Rhine, he left a he attacked them in the night of trong division of his forces in the the twenty-fourth of June, in fach Hundsdrück, the country lying on force, and with so niuch resolution, the left of that river, between that the Austrians were soon obliged Mentz, on the north, and Manheim, to retire across the bridges comon the south. This division, toge. municating with the German fide, ther with the garrisons of those two and which they had not time to cities, was reputed fufficient to destroy. Over there the French watch and repel the motions of passed to that fide, but they had general Moreall

, who commanded neither fufficient artillery nor cavalthe French forces in that quarter. ry to affif the infantry in case of

But this active general was intent an attack, which was every moment on a very different plan from that expected. In this critical fituation, of annoying the Austrian division, general Moreau determined to or of forming the fiege of either of march forwards with the few pieces these places. In order, however, of cannon he had seized upon the to deceive them, by such appear- ilands. With these he resolutely arices as might facilitate his designs, assaulted the fortress of Kehl, and he made a variety of motions, in- carried it. This sudden and unexdicating an attack of feveral of their pected fuccefs greatly alarmed the pofts; and, while they were making Auftrian army, under the archduke; arrangements to oppose him, he the rear of which was thereby put drew off, unperceived, almost the into danger, while the front was whole of his army, and, by an ex- exposed to the force under Jourdan: peditious march, reached Straiburgh who, collecting the divifions that before the Austrians had discovered had retreated, was preparing to his motions.

join Kleber, again advancing to He had now attained the spot wards the Austrians. from whence he was to enter upon

Marshal Wurmser, who comthe execution of his project, which manded the Austrian troops in the was, to cross the Rhine, opposite this Brisgaw, from which large detachcity, into Swabja, and to take the ments had been sent to Italy, was fort of Kehl; by being master of unable to maintain his ground which, he would gain the com- against Moreau, and the archduke mand of a large extent of country was himself compelled to haften to in its proximity, and secure an his aid; but, before he could arrive, 8

Moreau

Moreau fell upon the Austrians at near Coblentz, The Austrian geRenchan, a village near Philips- neral, WartenNeben, had not been burgh, and totally defeated them, able to oppose thefe various moveon the twenty-eighth of June, with 'ments of the "French, who had a conliderable loss of men' and can- worfed his troops on several ocnon. He pursued them to Radstadt, casions, and taken or killed near where, having received re-inforce- two thousand of them: . After difa ments, they made a stand; but, after perling all the various corps that 29 obstinate çonílict, were again attempted to impede their progress, routed on the sixth of July: Ge- they arrived, on the twelfth of July, neral Laroche had, on the second, within light of Francfort on the delealed a large body of them poft Main. ed on Mount Kubis, the highest of This city, with several others in thole called the Black Mountains, its proximity, furrendered to the

They now retreated to the vil- French, on capitulations that left lege of Ellingen, a strong position them in poffeffion of their municipal in the neighbourhood of Manheim. laws and government. In order to Here they were joined by the quiet the minds of the Germans, major part of the archdake's army, and convince them that the views and appeared relolved to make a of the French did not extend to any vigorous res fiance for the prefer. permanent poflefion of the town's ration of that part of Germany. and territories they had leizel, geThe baitle was fought, on the ninth neral Jourdan iflued a proclamation, of July, with great fury on both by which he formally engaged to kdes

, but ended to the advantage protect the judicial chamber of the of the French. They were re- empire at Wetzlar, situated in the pulled in four charges, but fuc- 'circle of the Upper Rhine, at reeded in the fifth, which was fome difiance from Francfort. He made with the bayonet. The Au- granted a faf guard to all its memfirians lost great numbers 1ain in bers, and strictly forbad its proceedthe field, belide fifteen hundred who ings to be disturbeci urider any prewere taken.

tence. This yictory decided the fuperi- Among the cities that surrendered ority on the Rhine in favour ofithe ' to Jourlan was that of Wurthurgh, French, The Auftriatis left Totally one of the most consideral-le bifhona ilt.covered the cities of Mentz and ricks and ecelehalical principalities Marheim, and the fortrefles of in Germany. Here he found imPhilipib rgh and Threnbretitçin,"mene ningazines and two hundred and retired farther into Germany, pieces of cannon. It fell into his lo wait for reinforcements, before hands on the tiventy-fixth of July; they could venture to resume offc'n- and shortly after, having forced Ste operations.

Wartenleben to retire beyond the In the mean time, general Kicker Rrdnitz, nens. Bamberg, on the had again proceeded from Du first of Anruf, he took posleffion of def, and advanced along the right that capital of Franconia, on the fame bank of the Rhine.' He was joined da: : like Wittburgh, it was also on the second of July by general a biljopric an principality, and Berdun, who lind croche Rhine poffee a confiderable territory. VOL. XXXVIII.

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