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oflivres. Part of this sum was intended ment, to secure any farther detría to redeem the allignats in circulation ment, ordained the last inftalment, at the rate of thirty of these for one which was the fourth part of the of the former; and the lands on fale purchase, to be paid in fpecie. were to be mortgaged, as a secu. Thus the speculators were tority for the payment of the remain- tally deceived in their calculations of ing part. The purchasers of these the profit they had expected: the lands were to pay for them by in- more indeed as private land fold at Stalments; and, as the property dif- a ch-aper rate than publie : but as posed of was a solid and visible they were chiefly monied men, and allet ; it was hoped that the new much of their opulence had arisen emiflion would retain its original from their fuccetsful speculations value. The directory inlisted in during the public distress, as their the most serious terms on the imme- lofles were inheeded, and the condiate want of this supply, for the duct of government, however iscarrying on of the war, and the fer. regular and arbitrary, pafled unvice of the current year.

ce: lured. The various failures of the French So great, in the mean time, were government in its pecuniary opera- the difficulties of the republic, that, tions, had so much discouraged the according to a statement of the respeculators in these matters, that it venue, made at this time by the was highly necessary to hold out coinmittee of finances, the whole of every encouragement to them. On it amounted to no more than five the decline of the alignats, a paper, hundred millions of livres, while known by the name of refcriptions, the expenditure was not less than had been given for advances to go- one thousand. The directory was vernment, and made payable in Ipe. fully sensible that in such a situation cie at a fixed period: but this too the boldest, as well as the most pril had lost its credit, by non-payment. dent measures must be retorte: to, The new fabrication, which went and that no alternative remained, by the name of mandates, lost, at but either of finishing the content its firft illuing, one-fourth of its with the enemies of France, on nominal value, and was reduced disadvantageous conditions, or of shortly after to one-fifth. It cou- ftraining the authority and power of tinued to decrease, and fell at last government to the fartheit extent to the bare proportion of one-tenth. that could be borne with, or tube' So heavy a lofs alarmed the di- mitted to, regardless of the disiatif. rectory, as, at that rate, the na- faction and murmurs that such a tional property, which was paid for conduct would in all likelihood ocin mandats, must of course be fold calion, for one-tenth of its value

It came France was, at this period, nearly to the determination to shorten the exhaufted of allextraordinary means periods of payment, in order to di- of levying money. The sale of minish thereby the quantity of man. national property, which was almost dats in circulation, which would the only one remaining, had been raise the worth of those that decreet. This meature however had remained: but this expedient had not yet taken place in the Austria did not much refore it, and governa an Netherlands, now incorpora ed

with France, which had 'hitherto a numerous class of individuals, abstained from loading this country wholly heedless for the purpofes of with such burdens as might prove society. offensive to its inhabitants. But As these representations were the exigences of the republic were founded in truth, and as the minds now become so urgent, that the di- of the people in Belgium had of rectory thought itself entitled to put late undergone material alterations so rich a portion of the empire in- in their opinions of things, they der the same requisitions as France were not unwilling to admit the raitself. This could not be con- lidity of the reasonings alleged in ftrued into oppression of the na- vindication of the measures protives, as they would only be placed posed by the French, and the fupon the same footing as the French, pression of religious houles, together with whom they now formed one with the sale of their lands, for the nation, united in views and inte- use of the flate, took place accordrests, and having the fame enemies ingly. to coinbat, by whom, if subdued, The resources arising from this they would exnerience in common ample fund, aided by the imposition the same ill treatment, and relapse of some new taxes, rendered fupinto that state of slavery, from which portable by an equitable repartition; they had both taken such pains to and more than all, by an exact and emancipate themselves.

rigid economy, introduced into every Such were the motives laid be- channel of expenditure, fupplied fore the people of the Austrian the five hundred millions wanted, in Netherlands, to induce them to co- addition to the revenue, and enincide with the design of the French abled the government to provide government, to decree the sale of for the demands of the present those valuable tracts of land, be- year. come the public property in that The difficulties experienced by country, by the suppression of the the French government in matters of numerous and opulent monastic finance, great as they were, did not orders. Exclusively of these mo- equal those that continually obtives, which were of considerable structed the indefatigable endeaweight with that part of the vours to preserve internal tranquillipeople which were well affected ty. The inextinguishable animosity of to the French, had a precedent to the opposite parties, that distračied plead of great efficacy in the minds the nation, seemed to increase by even of those who retained an at- failure and disappointment in their tachment to the religious establish- respective projects, and to derive, ments in their country. This was as it were, new vigour from the rethe general willingness of the ca- peated suppression of their attempts tholic powers to retain no other than to overturn the established guvernthe parochial and secular clergy, ment. and to fuppress all conventual in- The jacobin party, though not ftitutions, as the incentives and re- more active than the royalists, conceptacles of idleness, and burthen- fisted of men of far superior parts. ing the industrious part of the com- As they had but lately been onsted munity, with the maintenance of froin the feat of power, they nou. rilled a spirit of revenge which affray between the royalists and the prompted them to endless efforts to republicans. But the council of regain the mastery. In the mean five hundred ordered an inquiry lo while, their expulsion had not been be made, which detected the percomplete. Many of their parti- fidy of the commissary, in confezans full remained in places of quence of which, the forced trust: the legiNature counted inany elections of magiftrates, that had among its members, and the di- been made by the jacobin party, rectory itself had one of their well- were annulled, and proper measures wilhers.

taken to prevent them from difEmboldened by these circumftun- turbing the peace of that municices, and unintimidated by the disco- pality. very and fuppreilion of the dreadiul But the jacobins were not the only conspiracy, headed by Babeuf, they disturbers of the public tranquillity. had ihe audaeity to frame another, at The royalists, however juft their a distance from the capital, hoping, cause, frequently disgraced it by if successiul, to rally around the in- the ridiculous zeal

which they furgents, the numerous, jacobins manifefied in its fupport. Aduated still remaining in those parts,

by those illiterate and bigoted priefts, The place where the insurrection that swarm in France, they formed broke out was Marseilles, a city themselves into bands that aflumcd famous, in the annals of the revolu- the appellation of companions of tion, for tumults and disturbances. Jefus and the king. They fell upon On the nineteenth of July, while those, who, during the reign of the citizens were occupied in the terrorisın, had perfecuted and treated annual election of their magiftrates, them with barbarily, on whom the jacobins afsembled in multitudes, they exercised the moft unmerciful amned with a variety of weapons.

retaliation. Affrays of this nature They ran through the fireets, ex- often happened, especially in the claiming live the mountain and the fourth of France, where the vinconftitution of ninety-three. A dictive difpofition of the inhabiparty of them rushed into the hall of tants is 3pt to lead them into exelection, from whence they drove ceiles of a fatal tendency, from the the citizens, and murdered all duration and obstinary of their rewho opposed them.

lentment. As the plan of this hafty insur- It was calier, however, to crush rection was ill contriver, it had no both the spirit and the infurrections other confequence than to throw of the royalitts, than of the jacothe city of Marseilles into a tempo- bins. The former were usually exrary confufion. It appeared, how- cited to action through their imever, that the interest of the jaco- plicit fubmission to the advice and bins, in that place, had more strength exhortation of the refraciory eccle. and patronage than had been ima- fiaties: but the latter aciéd from gined. The commissary of the di- the unfubdued and incessant impulle rectory, in his dispatches to govern of their own principles, the very Inent, instead of laying before it nature of which rendered them inthe criminal behaviour of the jaco- dependent of the opinion of others, bins, represented the whole as an and perpetually excited them to

action, action, 'without needing any other duced, by whose medium they painly ftimulation. Men of this cha- imagined the majority of the reracter are not easily tamed into fub- mainder would be brought over to jection to those who differ from them. When they thought they them in sentiments, and are much were suiliciently prepared, they emmore ready to rise in opposition to bodiel themselves, to the number of them, than those who are governed five or fix hundred, and marched by the diglates of others.

to the camp in the Plain of GreThis conspicuously appeared in nelle, at a very small distance from that other attempt, which the jaco- Paris. They seemed to entertain no bins made to overthrow the establish- doubt of being joined by the troops ment, so very soon after having there, and confidently entered the failed in their late conspiracy. Tnecamp, crying out, the constitution numbers that voted against the im- of ninety-three, and down with the peachment of Drouet, and his eva- two councils and the five tyrants. fion from confinement, plainly fhew- At the head of this desperate body ed the influence of the jacobin fac- of men were three members of the tion. Relying on its many con

late convention, with as many recealed partisans, a resolution was nerals who had been dismissed the taken, by the undiscovered accom- service, and Drouet himself, it was plices of Babeuf in that conspiracy, faid, not long escaped from his to rescue him and his aflociates from prison. They warmly exhorted the the hands of government, at the soldiers to join them, proiniling time when they were to be re- every remuneration that could be moved from their prison at Paris, required; but they were totally deand transferred to Vandame, for ceived in their expectations. The trial before the high criminal court. soldiers remained true to their off

In order to conceal from the pub- cers, and, at the word of command, lic the real actors in the intended fell upon the conspirators, who, unrescue, the jacobins assumed the ap- able to contend with such a force, pearance of royalists. They put on betook themselves to flight Numwhite cockades, displayed white bers were killed upon the spot, and colours, and every other token of about one hundred and thirty taken. royalism, and in this manner pro- They were tried as insurgents by a ceeded in their enterprize: but they military commiffion. Sentence of were quickly discovered, and their death or banishment was passed project entirely frustrated.

upon the most notoriously guilty, Whether through neglect or con

and the others were discharged. nivance, no inquiry was made into The objects proposed by these this business. This induced the raih and furious conspirators, were jacobins to meditate another plan, timilar in every relpect to thole of and to take what they hoped might Babeuf and his allociates.

Blood prove more efficient means to fuc- and the extermination of all perceed. They collected as many of fons in power, those only excepted their most daring aluciates as could whom they considered as favourable be procured in the capital and its to their defigns. vicinity. They tampered with the While the jacobins were intent Soldiery, some of whom they fce upon thole destructive schemes, 10


which, happily for France, were fo amnesty, the report of which led to seasonably prevented, the govern a variety of difcufiions relating to it, ment was preparing a law, by which and occafioned at last a proposal to it hoped to reconcile the parties repeal the very law of the third of that divided the nation, fo far as to Brumaire, as bearing too inequitaextinguish the motives of terror bly upon those who were related that rendered so many Frenchmen to emigrants, whom it excluded enemies, through necessity, of their from public offices, together with countrymen in power.

those who had been concerned in • This law, from which such salı- the insurrection of last October, tary effects were expected to flow, against the decrees of the convenwas an act of universal amnesty, -tion for the re-elections. which was to pat an immediate These members of the legislature, stop to all prosecutions for revolu- who favoured the repeal of this law, tionary crimes and offences, com- considered it as inconsistent with mitted fince the commencement of the real principles of the constituJuly, 1789, to the fourth of Bru- tion, by which no man ought to be naire, in the fourth year of the re- subjected to fo heavy a punishment public, 1796. The only exceptions as the forfeiture of his civic rights, to this amnesty were those con- without evident proof of his defertained in the law enaĉied in the last ving it. In consequence of the reafitting of the late convention, and fonings they used in support of this called the law of the third Bru- opinion, a committee was chosen maire.

to deliberate on the inerits of this These exceptions were levelled law, and whether it could, with at the opposers of the new consti- safety, be repealed at the present tution, transported priests, and emi- period. grants, and those who had partici- The public was, in the mean pated in the insurrection at Paris time, greatly divided in its opinion against the decree of the convention, on this question. Some pronounced ordaining the re-election of two- it at once a trial of firength bethirds of its members.

tween the royalists and the repubBut this law had always been licans. Were the law to be repealconfidered, by the impartial, as too ed, an inundation of the former indileriminately favourable to the would infallibly take place in every adherents of the party which had department, and the restoration of framed it, as it not only put a stop monarchy would be the unavoidable to the proceedings against the consequence. agents of terrorism, but even against The nation at large held itself individuals guilty of crimes, for deeply concerned in the decision which they had been sentenced to of this important question, and severe and merited puniment, and waited for it with the utmost impawhom it lat at liberty in direct vio- tience. The committee, appointed · lation of all justice, and to the con- to examine the advantages and illfternation of all persons inclined to consequences resulting from the law moderation and pacific measures. alluded to, was confidered as hold

A committee had been appointed ing in its hands the fate of the nato draw up the plan of this propoled tions. Loud and servent were the


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