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PREFACE

This, the fourth and final book of the Walton and Holmes series of arithmetics, is intended for use in the eighth year of an eight-grade elementary course, and in either the eighth or the eighth and ninth years of a nine-grade course.

It gives to the grammar school pupil a final view of the subject, and provides for him a reference arithmetic that will be of use to him after leaving the elementary grades.

The treatment of the subject of arithmetic herein given is neither exhaustive nor extremely theoretical. The aim in the minds of the authors has been to produce a useful and usable text-book adapted to the needs and capabilities of eighth and ninth grade pupils. For this reason, the plan of the book is strictly topical rather than spiral, in order that each topic may be given such intensive study as is possible and desirable for grammar school pupils, not only for a mastery of the subject, but as a direct preparation for the mathematics of the secondary school where the topical treatment prevails.

Each topic is treated as fully as the limits of a text-book will permit, and is presented with full appreciation of its practical applications in the problems of the workshop, the factory, the counting room, and everyday experience.

This is an arithmetic pure and simple, and there has been no attempt at the introduction of novelty either in the presentation of topics or in the selection of problems. The authors have selected reasonable problems, and have avoided the use of those which would be unlikely to occur in ordinary business experience.

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