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OF

HIGHER ARITHMETIC

BY

B. F. SISK, M.S., M.A.

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, ROSEBUD, TEXAS, AND AUTHOR OF
OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR AND PSYCHOLOGY AND

GRAMMAR AS A SCIENCE

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á LIBRARY
GIŤ, Trie
PILATES !IL OF EDUCATION

Maya, 1930

COPYRIGHT, 1905, BY
SILVER, BURDETT AND COMPANY

с

PREFACE

This work is an outgrowth of the author's experience in teaching arithmetic to advanced classes in high schools and in normals, and has been prepared especially to meet the needs of such class S. In most of the high schools, pupils are required to review arithmetic after having had instruction in algebra and geometry. At this stage of advancement they are able to appreciate a scientific treatment of the subject and to make an intensive study of the same.

The sequence of topics is in accordance with the logical development of the subject. The first eight chapters may properly be considered pure arithmetic, since they deal primarily with the nature and laws of pure numbers. The remaining four chapters may be considered applied arithmetic, since they deal with numbers as applied to the business affairs of life. A pupil's skill in applied arithmetic depends in a large measure upon his knowledge of pure arithmetic.

Few rules have been given, but the fundamental principles have been prominently set forth, and model solutions, which serve to lead the pupil step by step through the process of reasoning and thereby compel him to think, are a special feature of the book. It is not the number of

problems solved, but rather the number of principles mastered, that is worth while. Doubtless many a teacher has felt the truth of the following, taken from McLellan and Dewey's “Psychology of Number," p. 9: “It is a certain quality of practice, not mere practice, which produces the expert and the artist. Unless the practice is based upon rational principles, upon insight into facts and their meaning, ‘experience simply fixes incorrect acts into wrong habits. Non-scientific practice, even if it finally reaches sane and reasonable results—which is very unlikely-does so by unnecessarily long and circuitous routes; time and energy are wasted that might easily be saved by wise insight and direction at the outset." In the preparation of this text, the foregoing principles have been kept in mind.

The author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness for helpful suggestions and criticisms to Mr. R. W. Fowler, Instructor in Arithmetic and Algebra in the Austin High School, and to Mr. A. N. McCallum, Superintendent of the Austin city schools.

B. F. SISK.

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