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11. From 125 dollars, take 9 dollars 9 cents.

Ans. 115 dolls, 91 cts 12. From 127 dollars 1 cent, take 41 dollars 10 cents.

Ans. 85 dolls. 91 cts. 13. From 365 dollars 90 cents, take 168 dols. 99 cents,

Ans. $196, 91 cts. 14. From 249 dollars 45 cents, take 180 dollars.

Ans. $69, 45 cts: 15. From 100 dollars, take 45 cts. Ans. $99, 55 cts.

16. From ninety dollars and ten cents, take forty dollars and nineteen cents.

Ans. $49, 91 cts. 17. From forty-one dollars eiglit cents, take one dollar nine cents.

Ans. $39, 99 cts. 18. From 3 dols. take 7 cts.

Ans. $2, 93 èts. 19 From ninety-nine dollars, take nincty-nine cents,

Ans. $98, 1 ct. 20. From twenty-dols. take twenty cents and one mill.

Ans. $19, 79 cts. 9 mills. 21. From three dollars, take one hundred and ninety-nine cents.

Ans. $1, 1 ct. 22. From 20 dols. take 1 dime. Ans. $19, 90 cts.

23. From nine dollars and ninety cents, take ninety-nine dimes.

Ans. 0

remains. 24. Jack's prize money was 219 dollars, and Thonists

received just twice as much, lacking 45 cents. How much money did Thomas receive ? Ans. $437, 55 cts.

25. Joe Careless received prize money to the amount of 1000 dollars ; after which he lays out 411 dolls. 41 cents. for a span of fine horses ; and 123 dollars 40 cents for a gold watch and a suit of new clothes ; besides 359 dols. and 50 oents he lost in gambling. How much will he have left after paying his landlord's bill, which amounts to 85 dols. and 11 cents ?

Ans. $20, 58 cts.

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SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION TEACHETH to increase or repeat the greater of two numbers given, as often as there are units in the less, or multiplying number; hence it performs the work of many additions in the most compendious manner.

The number to be multiplied is called the multiplicand.
The number you multiply by, is called the multiplier.

The number found from the operation, is called the pro. duct.

Note. Both multiplier and multiplicand are in general called factors, or terms.

CASE I, When the múltiplier is not more than twelve. RULE.-Multiply each figure in the multiplicand by the multiplier ; carry one for every ten, (as in addition of whole numbers,) and you, will have the product or answer. Proof-Multiply the multiplier by the multiplicand.

EXAMPLES,
Vhat number is equal to 3 times 365 ?

Thus, 365 multiplicant

3 multiplier.

Ans. 1095 product.

* Multiplication may also be proved by casting out the 9's in the two factors, and setting down the remainders, then multiplying the two remainders together, if the excess of 9's in their product is equal to the excess of 9's in the total product, the work is supposed to be right,

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CASE II. When the multiplier consists of several figures. Rule.--The multiplier being placed under the multiplicand, units under units, tens under tens, &c. multiply by each significant figure in the multiplier separately, placing the first figure in each product exactly under its multiplier ; then add the several products together in the same order as they stand, and their sum will be the total product.

EXAMPLES.
What number is equal to 47 times 365 ?

Multiplicand, 3 6 5
Multiplier, 4 7

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14. Multiply 760483 by 9152. Ans. 6950940416, 15. What is the total product of 7608 times 365432.

Ans. 2780206656. 16. What number is equal to 40003 times 4897685.

Ans. 195922093055.

CASE III. When there are ciphers on the right hand of either er both of the factors, neglect those ciphers; then place the significant figures under one another, and multiply by them only, and to the right hand of the product, place as many ciphers as were omitted in both the factors.

EXAMPLES.
21200
31800

84600
70
36

34000

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7065000 8700=61465500000 749643000 x 695000=521001885000000 360000 x 1200000=432000000000

CASE IV. When the multiplier is a composite number, that is whet ic is proa. сed by multiplying any two numbers in the table together, ntultiply fiset by one of those figures, and that

re

product by the other, and the last product will be the tofat required.

EXAMPLES

Multiply 41364 by 35 x 5=35.

7

289548 Product of 7

5

1447740 Product of 35

2. Multiply 764131 by 48.

Ans. 36678288 3. Multiply 342516 by 56.

Ans. 19180896, 4. Multiply 209102 by 72.

Ans. 15076944. 5. Multiply 91738 by 81.

Ans. 7430778. 6. Multiply 34462 by 108.

Ans. 3721896. 7. Multiply 615243 by 144.

Ans. 88594992.

CASE V. To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, &c. annex to the multiplicand all the ciphers in the multiplier, and it will make the product required.

EXAMPLES.

1

1. Multiply 365 by 10.

Ans. 3650. 2. Multiply 4657 by 100.

Ans. 465700. 3. Multiply 5224 by 1000.

Ans. 5224000. 4. Multiply 26460 by 10000. Ans. 264600000.

EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE. 1. Multiply 1203450 by 9004. Ans. 10835863800. 2. Multiply 9087061 by 56708. Ans. 515309055188. 3. Multiply 8706544 by 67089. Ans. 584113330416. 4. Multiply 4321209 by 123409. Ans. 533276081481. 5. Multiply 3456789 by 567090. Ans. 1960310474010. 6. Multiply 8496427 by 874359. Ans. 7428927415293.

98763542 x 98763542=8754237228385764.

Application and Use of Multiplication. In making out bills of parcels, and in finding the value of goods; when the price of one yard, pound, &c. is given (in Federal Money) to find the value of the whole quantity.

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