13 91 1 41 £ s. d. 4. Divide 24 16 6 by 36 0 5. Divide 128 9 0 by 42 3 1 2 6. Divide 269 12 4 by 56 4 16 3 7. Divide 248 10 8 by 64 3 17 8 8. Divide 65 14 0. by 72 18 3 9. Divide 5 10 3 by 81. 0 10. Divide 115 100 by 90 1 5 8 11. Divide 136 16 6 by 108 1 5 4 12. Divide 202 136 by 121 1 13 6 13. Divide 34 4 0 by 144 0 4 9 3. When the divisor is large, and not a composite number, you may divide by the whole divisor at once, after man. ner of long division, as follows, viz. EXAMPLES. £ s. d. £ s. d. 94 34 pounds remaining. Multiply by 20 and add in the 13s. produces 693 shillings, which divided by 47, gives 47 [14s. in the quotient. 35 shillings remaining. Multiply by 12 and add in the 3d. produces 423 pence, which, divided as abuse, 423 [gives 9d. in the glotieni. £ d. £ s. d. 2. Divide 113 13 4 by 31 Ans. 3 13 4 3. Divide 85 6 3 by 75 1 2 9 4. Divide 315 3 10by 365 0 17 31 5. Divide 132 0 8 by 68 1 18 10 6. Divide 740 16 8 by 100 7 8 2 7. Divide 888 18 10 by 96 ly Examples of Weights, Measures, fc. 1. Divide 14 cwt. I qr. 8 lb. of sugar equally among men. C. gr. lb. oz. 8)14 1 8 0 1 3 4 8 Quotient. 8 14 1 8 0 Proof. 2. Divide 6 T. 11 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lb. by. 4. Ans. 1 T. 12 cwt. 3 qrs. 25 lb. 12 oz. 3. Divide 14 cwt. 1 qr. 12 lb. by 5. Ans. 2 cut. 3 qrs. 13 lb. 9 oz. 9 dr. + 4. Divide 16 lb. 13 oz. 10 dr. by 6. Ans. 2 16. 12 oz. 15 dr. 5. Divide 56 lb. 6 oz. 17 pwt. of silver into 9 equal parts. Ans. ; ib. 3 oz. 8 pwt. 13 grs.+ 6. Divide 26 lb. 1 oz. 5 cit. by 24. Ans. 1 lb. 1 oz. 1 prot. 1 gr. 7. Divide 9 hhds. 28 gals. 2 qts. by 12. Ans. Ohhd. 49 gals. 2 qts. 1 pt. 8. Divide 168 bu. 1 pk. 6 qts. by 35. Ans. 4 bu. 3 pks. 2 qts. 9. Divide 17 lea. I m. 4 fur. 21 po. by 21. Ans. 2 m. 4 fur. 1 po. 10. Divide 43 yds. I qr. 1 na. by 11. Ans. 3 yds. 3 qrs. 11. Divide 97 E. E. 4 qrs. 1 na. by 5. Ans. 19 yds. 2 qrs. 3 na. + 12. Divide 4; gallons of brandy equally among 144 soldiers. Ans. i gill apiece. 13. Bought a dozen of silver spoons, which together weighed 3 lb. 2 oz. 13 pwt. 12 grs. how much silver did each spoon contain? Ans. 3 oz. . 4 put. 11 gr. 14. Bought 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lb. of sugar, and sold out one third of it; how much remains unsold ? Ans. 11 cut. 3 qrs. 22 lb. 15. From a piece of cloth containing 64 yards 2 na. a tailor was ordered to make 9 soldiers' coats, which took one third of the whole piece; how many yards did each coat contain ? Ans. 2 yds. 1 qr. 2 na. 3 na. PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. .71d. what is that per yard? £ 7 2 d. gr. 2. If 11 tons of hay cost 231. Os. 2d. what is that per tun? Ans. £2 ls. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy coșt 41. 15s. 6d. what is that per gallon ? Ans. 7s. 11d. 2qrs. 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost ll. 16s. 9d. what is that per pound? Ans. 5 d. 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 11l. 2s. how much a pair do they stand me in? Ans. 4s. 7.d. 6. If a reckoning of 51. 8s. 101d. be paid equally among 13 persons, what do they pay apiece ? Ans, 8s. 4 d. 7. A piece of cloth containing 24 yards, cost 181. 6s. what did it cost per yard ? Ans. 15s. 3d. 8. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a gallon? Ans. 10s. 8d. 9. If I cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s. what is it per pound? ? 1 Ans. 7.d. 10. If a man spend 711. 14s. 6d. a year, what is that per,calendar month? Ans. £5 19s. 6 d. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 150,0001. a year, what is that a day? Ans. £410 19s. 2d. 12. A privateer takes a prize worth 12465 dollars, of which the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the remainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 in number; how much is each sailor's part? Ans. $24 93 cts. 13. Three merchants A, B, and C, have a ship in company. A bath , B , and C }, and they receive for freight 2281. 16s. 8d. It is required to divide it among the own. ers according to their respective shares. Ans. A's share £143 Os. 5d. B's share £57 4s. 2d C's share £28 12s. ld. 11. A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it is divided into one hundred shares; of which the captain is to have 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; 12 midsipmen, each 2; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors, who are 105 in number. Ans. Captain's share $753 50 cts.; lieutenant's, $342 50 cts.; a midshipman's, $ 137, and a sailor's, $35 88. REDUCTION, TEACHES to bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value. Reduction is either Descending or Ascending. Descending, is when great names are brought into smali, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.- This is done by Multiplication. Ascending, is when small names are brought into great, as shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is performed by Division. REDUCTION DESCENDING. Rule.-Multiply the highest denomination given by so many of the next less as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you have brought it down as low as your question requires. Proof. Change the order of the question, and divide your last product by the last multiplier, and so on. EXAMPLES. £ 4)24758 Ans. 24758. 12)6189 2 qrs. 20)515 9d. £25 15 92 S. d. qros. 24758 farthings. NOTE. In multiplying by 20, I added in the 15s.--by 1% the 9d.--and by 4 the 2qrs. which must always be done in like cases. 2. In 311. 11s. 10d. Iqr. how many farthings ? Ans. 30329. 3. In 461. 55. 11d. 3qrs. how many farthings? Ans. 44447. 4. In 611. 12s. how many shillings, pence, and farthings? Ans. 1232s. 14784d. 59136qrs. 5. In 841. how many shillings and pence? Ans. 1680s. 20160c 6. In 18s. 9d. how many pence and farthings? Ans. 225d. 900qrs. 7. In 3121. 8s. 5d. how many half-pence? Ans. 149962. 8: In 846 dollars, ar 6s. each, how many farthings? Ans. 243648. 9. in 41 guineas, at 28s. each, how many pence? Ans. 13776. 10. In 59 pistoles, at 22s. how many shillings, pence, and farthings? Ans. 1298s. 15576d. 62304 qrs. 11. In 37 half-johannes, at 48s. how many shillings, sixpences, and three-pences ? Ans. 1776s. 3552 six-pences, 7104 three-pences. 12. In 121 French crowns, at 6s. 8d. each, how many pence and farthings ? Ans. 9680d. 38720qrs. REDUCTION ASCENDING. Rule.-Divide the lowest denomination given, by so many of that name as make one of the next higher, and so on through all the denominations, as far as your question requires. Proof. Multiply inversely by the several divisors. EXAMPLES. 1. In 224765 farthings, how many pence, shillings and pounds ? Farthings in a penny=4)224765 £234 2s. Yd. I qr. Ans. 56191d. 4682s. 2341. NOTE. The remainder is always of the same name as the dividend. 2. Bring 30329 farthings into pounds. Ans. £31 11s. Iod. Iqr. |