place of hundredths, by 5, if the shillings be odd; and the third place by 1 when the farthings exceed 12, and by 2 when they exceed 36. EXAMPLES. ,3 = 6s. for the odd shillings. £. ,391=decimal required. 2. Find the decimal expression of 16s. 4d. and 178.81d. Ans. £ ,819, and £ ,885 3. Write down £47 18 104 in a decimal expression. Ans. £47,943 4. Reduce £1 8s. 2d. to an equivalent decimal. Ans. £1,40 PROBLEM II. A short and easy method to find the value of any decimal of a pound by inspection. Rule.-Double the first figure, or place of tenths, for shillings, and if the second figure be 5, or more than 5, reckon another shilling; then, after this 5 is deducted, call the figures in the second and third places so many farthings, abating 1 when they are above 12, and 2 when above 36, and the result will be the answer. Note. When the decimal has but 2 figures, if any thing remains after the shillings are taken out, a cipher must be annexed to the left hand, or supposed to be so. EXAMPLES. 1. Find the value of £. ,679 by inspection. 12s=double of 6 [deducted out of 7 2. Find the value of £. ,876 by inspection. Ans. 17s.61d. 3. Find the value of £. ,842 by inspection. Ans. 16s. 10d. 4. Find the value of £.,097 by inspection. Ans. Is. 11:11 REDUCTION OF CURRENCIES. Rules for reducing the Currencies of the several United States* into Federal Money. CASE I. New-England, New-York, and North Carolina. | Tennessee. RULE. 1. When the sum consists of pounds only, annex a cipher to the pounds, and divide by half the number of shillings in a dollar, the quotient will be dollars.t 2. But if the sum consists of pounds, shillings, pence, &c. bring the given sum into shillings, and reduce the pence and farthings to a decimal of a shilling; annex said decimal to the shillings, with a decimal point between, then divide the whole by the number of shillings con. tained in a dollar, and the quotient will be dollars, cents, mills, &c. EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 731. New-England and Virginia currency, to 3)730 Federal money. cls. $2431=243 331 2. Reduce 451. 15s. 7 d. New-England currency, to fede20 [ral money. d. A dollar=6)915,625 12)7,500 * Formerly the pound was of the same sterling value in all the colonies as in Great-Britain, and a Spanish Dollar worth 4s. 6.—but the legisla tures of the different colonies emitted bills of credit, which afterwards de preciated in their value, in some states more, in others less, &c. Thus a dollar is reckoned in South- Carolina, 73. 6d. Kentucký, and 48. Sd. and Georgia, Adding a cipher to the pounds, multiplies the whole by 10, bringing them into tenths of a pound; then because a dollar is just three tenths of a pound, N. E. currency, dividing those tenths by 3, brings them into dollars, See Note, page 78. NOTE. 1 farthing is ,25 ) which annex to the pence, and 2 ,50 divide by 12, you will have the = ,75 ) decimal required. £345 10 11 12)11,2500 ,9375 decimal. $1151,8229+ Ans. 4. Reduce 1051, 14s. 3 d. New-York and North-Carolina currency, to federal money. £105 14 3 d 20 12)3,7500 th de na A dollar=8)2114,3125 ,3125 decimal. $264,289 06 Ans. Or $ dcm. in 5. Reduce 4311. New-York currency to federal money, This being pounds only, * - 4)4310 cls. Ans. $1077}=1077,50 6. Reduce 281. 11s. 6d. New-England and Virginia currency, to federal money. Ans. $95, 25 cts. 7. Change 4631. 10s. 8d. New-England, &c. currency, to federal money: Ans. $1545, 11cts. Im. + 8. Reduce 35l. 19s. Virginia, &c. currency, to federal money Ans. $119, 83 cts. 3 m. + 9. Reduce 2141. 10$. 7d. New-York, &c. currency, to federal money. Ans. $536, 32 cts. 8 m. + 10. Reduce 3041. 11s. 5d. North-Carolina, &c. currency, :o federal money. Ans. $761 42 cts. 7 m.+ 11. Change 2191. 11s. 7 d. New-England and Virginia currency, to federal money. Ans. $731 94 cts. + * A dollar is 8s. in this currency-454-10 of a pound; therefore, multiply by 10, and divide by 4; brings the pounds into dollars, &c. 1 deral money. 12. Change 2411. New-England, &c. currency, into fe Ans. $803, 33 cts. 13. Bring 201. 185. 5 d. New-England currency, into dollars. Ans. $69, 74 cts. 61, m. + 14. Reduce 4681. New-York currency to federal money Ans. $1170 15. Reduce 17s. 9 d. New-York, &c. currency, to dollars, &c. Ans. $2, 22 cts. 6,5 m. + 16. Borrowed 10 English crowns, at 6s. 8d. each, how many dollars, at 6s. each, will pay the debt ? Ans. $11, 11 cts. I m. Note. There are several short practical methods of reducing New-England and New-York currencies to Federal Money, for which see the Appendix. CASE II. To reduce the currency of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, to Federal Money. RULE.—Multiply the given sum by 8, and divide the product by 3, and the quotient will be dollars, &c.* EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 2451. New-Jersey, &c. currency, to federal money. £245x8=1960, and 1960= 3=$653}=$653, 33 cts. Note.—When there are shillings, pence, &c. in the given sum, reduce them to the decimal of a pound, then multily and divide as above, &c. 2. Reduce 361. 11s. 81d. New-Jersey, &c. currency, to federal money. £36,5854 decimal value. 8 £. d. 334 40 5. Reduce 99,7 61 265 00 5+ 6. Reduce 100 0 266 66 67 7. Reduce 25 3 67 14 4 8. Reduce 0 17 9 2 36 6,6 * A dollar is 7s. 60.90d. in this currency=90-240=3-8 of a pound; there Pre multiplying by 8, and dividing by 3, gives the dollars, cents, &c. ANSWERS cts. m. CASE III. to Federal Money. Rule.-Multiply the given sum by 30, and divide the product by 7, the quotient will be the dollars, cents, &c.* EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 1001. South-Carolina and Georgia currency, to federal money. 1001. X 30=3000; 3000 - 75$428,5714 'Ans. 2. Reduce 541. 16s. 9 d. Georgia currency, to federal money. 54,8406 decimal expression. 30 7)1645,2180 Ans. 235,0311 ANSWERS. d. $ cts. m 3. Reduce 94 14 8 to federal money, 405 99 8+ 4. Reduce 19 17 61 85 187+ 5. Reduce 417 14 6 1790 25 6. Reduce 140 100 602 14 2+ 17. Reduce 160 0 0 685 71 4 8. Reduce 0 11 6 2 46 4+ 9. Reduce 41 1779 179 51 43% CASE IV. Federal Money. Note. Five shillings of this currency are cqual to a dollar; consequently 4 dollars make one pound. EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 1251. Canada and Nova-Scotia currency, to kederal money. 125 4 Ans. $500 * 4s. 8d. or 56d. to the dollar= = o of a pound ; herefore x 30:7. |