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385 shekel, as the German Gran (grain) from granum. In like manner also is explained 7, the small, single, little piece; hence berry, Is. 17:6. Further, nin Fauces, pr. the splits, holes, i. e. windpipe and throat; whence in general, throat, neck; always used of the outside of the neck, whilst in usually signifies the inside, although not in all cases, vid. Is. 3: 16, where it designates the outside and front of the neck. Cf. , ,
hole, hollow. These significations are used interchangeably. Even my, neck, from 123 strictly means split, cleft, opening, cf. fauces with xaúvos, split, gaping, German gähnen, hence throat; gula = throat and neck.
Gesenius confusedly and arbitrarily develops the whole se. ries of words derived from 77 from the imitation of a natural sound which corresponds to the German gurgeln, s-charren, etc. The Gurgel (the upper part of the throat) is not so named in German from gurgeln, (to gurgle) any more than Kopf, head from köpfen, to behead or to grow into a head, or Nase, nose, from näseln, to nose, as a dog, or to speak through the nose, .... but on the contrary the Latin gurges depth, abyss, (cf. Sanscrit gri, to swallow down) shows the original signification of the reduplicated root in gurgulio, windpipe, German Gurgel. The Icelandic still has Kuerkur. As a secondary signification we have“ to utter guttural sounds, chirp," in Sanscrit, gri= to utter a sound, in general, ynovo, to sound, sing, speak; garrire, prate, gabble. Then, more specifically, the picturesque reduplication was, gargarizare, yavyapigw, gurgle. Gurgling is, moreover, not the principal function of the throat, so that it is difficult to conceive how any one could have supposed it to have derived its name from that operation.
From the Monosyllabic Stems we select a single example, viz. #2, (p. 639) from the root xa=na, pa, pr. push = penetrate ausis a) penetravit in medium, b) firmiter mansit in loco;
a importune institit; ** 1) Penetrate, = enter, enter into; then in general, go. 2) Come. Arab. 6 II. inivit feminam; venit in locum, ubi commoratus fuit. 6 coitus conjugialis.
., the preposition, also belongs unquestionably to the stem dia. Ethiop. ba, Arab. , Aram. "2 (instead of x3, as instead of xa) prop. a status constructus which signifies introduction, and hence, Vol. IV. No. 14.
as preposition, in. Comp. the kindred, simply-reduplicated stem in the substantive 84, zra, entrance, door, gate, ws, canal, (pr. way). Hence the opinion of the old grammarians is not so utter. ly groundless, who regarded as nearly related to me, if we have correctly derived this latter word, p. 524, which will scarcely be doubted. Ewald (Ausführl. Lehrb. $217, 9) compares with 12, between, which appears, however, inappropriate both for the form and signification. The etymology of the Arab. s, in, is precisely similar, which is a derivative from y mouth = aperture, entrance, variously applied, as os, ingressus plateae, viae, vallis; principium rei; so that the preposition has nothing to do
NEANDER'S CHURCH HISTORY.
General History of the Christian Religion and Church; from the German of Dr. Augustus Neander. Translated from the second and improved edition, by Joseph Torrey, Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy in the University of Vermont. Volume First comprising the first Great Division of the History. pp. 723. Boston: published by Crocker and Brewster. London: Wiley and Putnam. 1847.
By Rev. Dr. Sears, President of Theological Institution, Newton, Mass. At length a part of the long-expected translation of Neander's church history by Professor Torrey has appeared. For ten long years, the theological student has been rejoicing, with some little abatement towards the end, in the near prospect of possessing this truly Christian and philosophical history of the church. The unskilful and repulsive translation of a part of the work by Rose, only increased the general desire for the expected American translation, which, it was believed, would be more worthy of the original. Indeed, it may be said that Professor Torrey, from his known scholarship and the force of peculiar circumstances, enjoyed a good reputation, as a translator of Neander, even before the work was executed. Winer has, for the same length of time,
397 been praised for his Lexicon of the New Testament, which no human being has yet, ever seen. These two works have, for sometime, been considered by the learned as indefinitely postponed. But here, as in most other cases, it turns out, that nothing takes place without a reason. At least, this is true in re. spect to the delay of Professor Torrey; and it is hinted, by the friends of Winer, that in consequence of some change in his views, occasioned by the recent investigations of other scholars, he has found it necessary to remodel his lexicon, which, according to promise, should have appeared in 1834.
When the recent splendid edition of Chrysostom's works was nearly ready for delivery in Paris, the painful intelligence reached us that the whole edition was destroyed by fire. The great work of F. W. Schubert, entitled Staatskunde, giving a statistical view of the different countries of Europe, was arrested in 1839 by a fire which destroyed the manuscript of the volume relating to Prussia, then ready for the press. The announcement of its appearance in 1846, however gratifying to the public, brought with it the sad recollection of seven years of lost labor. A similar occurrence in respect to Niebuhr's Roman History, is familiar to all. Professor Torrey's misfortune, if we are rightly informed, for we have only the proof-sheets of his work without the preface before us, was somewhat different. Just as he was ready, after an immense amount of labor, to publish his translation, it was announced, that a new edition of the original, materially altered and improved, was already in progress. Had the translator, fa. tigued with his toil, and shrinking from a repetition of it, published at that time, what he had prepared, the public would have been deprived of the benefit of the author's last revision. It was a manly resolution, to sit down to the task of a re-translation, for the sake of giving to the reader the improvements which seventeen years of study and reflection had enabled Neander to make in the two volumes, which in the translation before us are united into one.
As our views of any work are affected by our knowledge of its author, and as but little is generally known of the personal his. tory of Dr. Neander, we have deemed this a fitting occasion to lay before the reader some particulars relating to the most interesting period of his life, which have accidentally been brought to light from an unexpected quarter.
In the years 1803 and 1904, there were living at Berlin several young men of high aims and of some poetical talent, extensively
known at a later period of life as elegant prose writers, who, according to a good custom then very prevalent, formed themselves into a club, for purposes of literary improvement. They were Varnhagen von Ense, Chamisso, Neumann, Hitzig, Theremin, and a few others, to whom Klaproth and Neander were subse. quently added. They published at that time a Musenalmanach, familiarly called by them “ The Green Book,” from its color, which attracted some attention, and was variously reviewed by the different and dissentient schools of critics. It was condemned by Merkel, but commended by Schlegel. At first, the business of the day with each being ended, they went and passed a half, and sometimes the whole of a starry night with Chamisso, who stood as sentinel at the Brandenburg or Potsdam gate, discussing poetical subjects, and laying out plans for study. Afterwards, when they had their “ Poetical Tea of the Green Book” at the house of Hitzig, Theremin, or of others who could furnish the accom. modation, their love of the poetical hours, when all was silent and the stars were inviting to thought, led them to hold their meetings from midnight to day-light. In 1804, a separation became necessary. Hitzig, who had finished his course of legal study, was to go to Warsaw, in a civil office as assessor.” He is chiefly known as Criminal- Director, in Berlin. Theremin was to go to Geneva to complete his theological studies. He afterwards became celebrated, as an evangelical court preacher at Berlin, and continued to attract large audiences till his death, which recently occurred. Varnhagen von Ense went to Hamburg to prepare for the university, where Neumann, a few months later, joined him. Chamisso, as lieutenant in the army, was soon removed from Berlin to Hameln in the south-western part of the kingdom of Hanover, where he remained till after the battle of Jena. Klaproth did not go on his journey to China till the next year. Before the circle was broken up, a permanent bond of union was effected by the formation of a society, called rò toŨ róhov őorpov, the North being symbolical of intelligence. A live. ly and enthusiastic correspondence was carried on between the members of this society aster their separation, and to this we are indebted for our information concerning Neander.1
It was while Varnhagen von Ense and Neumann were prosecuting their studies at the “Johanneum” at Hamburg, of which the celebrated Gurlitt was then the rector, and where Kraft now
" Leben und Briefe von Adelbert Chamisso, herausgegeben durch J. E. Hitzig, Leipsic, 1839.
Parallel between Dr. Neander and John Foster.
is, that they made the acquaintance of Neander, then but seventeen years of age. The facts brought to light in respect to his pursuits and character at this period of his life, and which throw light on Neander's character as a historian, are as instructive as
a they are interesting. Neumann, in a letter to Chamisso, dated Hamburg, Feb. 11, 1806, says:
“ We si. e. hinself and Varnhagen von Ense) have become acquainted with an excellent young man among our fellow students, who is in every respect worthy of being received into the society of the North Star. Plato is his idol, and his perpetual watch-word. He pores over that author night and day; and there are probably few who receive him so completely into the very sanctuary of the soul. It is surprising to see how all this has been accomplished without any influence from abroad. It proceeds simply from his own reflection, and his pure and innate love of study. Without making himself particularly acquainted with the Romantic school of poetry, he has, from the impulse given by Plato, worked out the results in his own mind. He has learned to look with indifference upon the outward world.”
This first gleam of light cast upon Neander's early history, reveals important mysteries. It shows us, in part, the laboratory, where those processes commenced which are now of such potent efficacy in the Christian world. We here learn from a few hints, what we shall learn more fully from Neander's own letters, that he was as original, as singular, as susceptible of deep and intense emotion, and as distinct from the rest of mankind, as was John Foster. Unexpected as it may be to some of our readers, we cannot help alluding to the parallel which has forced itself upon us while reading this correspondence. Neander is no less profound and independent than was Foster, while he is more comprehensive, and incomparably more learned. Introspection was equally the peculiar habit of each, and with each the secret of his great power. We seem to be introduced by them into the chambers of an immense subterranean cavern, where some of nature's greatest mysteries stand revealed. Both are distinguished by magnificence of thought, and reach of imagination; but these qualities are combined in different proportions, and directed to different objects. The thought of the one is both massive and reg. ular, and moves like the heavy wheel by which the solid bars of iron are cut in our machine-shops. That of the other is more elastic, and has more of the irregularities and free movements of genius. The imagination of the one is like the broad flapping