An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

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Penguin UK, 26 Αυγ 2004 - 816 σελίδες
In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, first published in 1690, John Locke (1632-1704) provides a complete account of how we acquire everyday, mathematical, natural scientific, religious and ethical knowledge. Rejecting the theory that some knowledge is innate in us, Locke argues that it derives from sense perceptions and experience, as analysed and developed by reason. While defending these central claims with vigorous common sense, Locke offers many incidental - and highly influential - reflections on space and time, meaning, free will and personal identity. The result is a powerful, pioneering work, which, together with Descartes's works, largely set the agenda for modern philosophy.
 

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OF WORDS
CONTENTS
medicine as well as on various branches of philosophy The three works that
Were it fit to trouble thee with the history of this Essay Locke writes in
OF INNATE NOTIONS
Some further Considerations concerning our Knowledge
Chapter
forward after the rejection in Book I of an opposing doctrine about its genesis
Not the real essence which we know
Not substantial forms which we know less 11 That the nominal essence is that whereby we distinguish species further evident from spirits
Whereof there are probably numberless species
The nominal essence that of the species proved from water and ice 1418 Difficulties against a certain number of real essences
Our nominal essences of substances not perfect collections of properties 21 But such a collection as our names stand
Our abstract ideas are to us the measures of species instance in that of man 23 Species not distinguished by generation
Not by substantial forms 25 The specific essences are made by the mind 26 27 Therefore very various and uncertain
But not so arbitrary as mixed modes

No Innate Practical Principles
Other Considerations concerning Innate Principles both Speculative and Practical
against this doctrine of innatism derives from the thought that it hinders people
OF IDEAS
Of Ideas of One Sense
Of Simple Ideas of both Sensation and Reflection
Some further Considerations concerning our Simple Ideas
Of Perception
Of Retention
Of Discerning and other Operations of the Mind
Of Complex Ideas
Of Simple Modes and first of the Simple Modes of Space
Of Duration and its Simple Modes
Of Duration and Expansion considered together
Of Number
Of Infinity
Of other Simple Modes
Of the Modes of Thinking
Of Modes of Pleasure and Pain
Of Power
Of Mixed Modes
Of our Complex Ideas of Substances
Of Collective Ideas of Substances
Of Relation
Of Cause and Effect and other Relations
Of Identity and Diversity
Of other Relations
Of Clear and Obscure Distinct and Confused Ideas
Of Real and Fantastical Ideas
Of Adequate and Inadequate Ideas
Of True and False Ideas
Of the Association of Ideas
Of Words or Language in General
Of the Signification of Words
Of General Terms
Of the Names of Simple Ideas
Of the Names of Mixed Modes and Relations
Of the Names of Substances
Though very imperfect 30 Which yet serve for common converse
Essences of species under the same name very different
The more general our ideas are the more incomplete and partial they
This all accommodated to the end of speech 34 Instance in cassowaries 35 Men determine the sorts
Nature makes the similitude 37 And continues it in the races of things 38 Each abstract idea is an essence
Genera and species are in order to naming 40 Species of artificial things less confused than natural
Artificial things of distinct species 42 Substances alone have proper names
Of Particles
Of Abstract and Concrete Terms
Of the Imperfection of Words
Of the Abuse of Words
Of the Remedies of the Foregoing Imperfections and Abuses
OF KNOWLEDGE AND OPINION Chapter I Of Knowledge in General
Of the Degrees of our Knowledge
Of the Extent of Human Knowledge
Of the Reality of Knowledge
human mind were various moral or as Locke calls them practical precepts
Of Truth in General
Of Universal Propositions their Truth and Certainty
Of Maxims
Of Trifling Propositions
Of our Knowledge of Existence
Of our Knowledge of the Existence of a
Of our Knowledge of the Existence of other Things
Of the Improvement of our Knowledge
Of Judgement XV Of Probability
Of the Degrees of Assent
Of Reason
Of Faith and Reason and their Distinct Provinces
Of Enthusiasm
Of Wrong Assent or Error
Of the Division of the Sciences
John Lockes Debate with Edward Stillingfleet Bishop of Worcester as it figures in footnotes in the Fifth Edition of the Essay
Index to the Fifth Edition
Notes
extent of human knowledge I i 2 Just what had aroused his interest here? What
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John Locke (1632-1704) was educated at Christ Church, Oxford and held various academic posts at that university, lecturing on Greek and rhetoric. However, his interests lay in medicine and the new experimental sciences and in 1667 he became personal physician to the Earl of Shaftesbury. Under the influence of Shaftesbury, Locke developed his ideas on politics, property, trade, monarchy and the mind. Shaftesbury became a bitter opponent of Charles II and was involved in the plot of 1683. This forced Locke to flee in exile to Holland, but he returned after 1688 and began to publish his most famous works. He wrote also on tehology, education, and in defence of religous tolerance, while founding the analytic philosophy of the mind.


Roger Woolhouse is Professor of Philosophy at the University of York. He has also edited George Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous for Penguin Classics.

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