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A AARIFI PASHA, who succeeded Savfet History of Napoleon III.” (1868); 10 vols. of Pasha as Minister of Foreign Affairs in July, illustrated histories; “A History of the Civil 1877, is considered one of the finest scholars War in America” (2 vols., 1863–66); “Romance and most able statesmen of Turkey. He pos- of Spanish History" (1870); and “The Hissesses a thorough knowledge of French, and tory of Frederick the Second, called Frederick was for a long time interpreter to Abdul Med- the Great” (1871). Most of Mr. Abbott's works jid ;

he also possesses a knowledge of German. have had a large sale, and several of them have In October, 1872, he was appointed ambassa- been translated into many languages. dor to Austria, but was recalled in 1873, and ABDUL KERIM PASHA, commander-inin 1874 was appointed to the ministry of for- chief of the Turkish forces in Europe from eign affairs. In the different ministries which April 17, to July, 1877, was born in 1807 at sacceeded each other in 1875 and 1876, he held Tchirfa, in the district of Philippopolis, of a at times the offices of Minister of Education family descended from one of the Bulgarian and of Justice. In the beginning of 1877 he chiefs who embraced Mohammedanism at the was again appointed ambassador in Vienna, time of the Mussulman conquest. He entered and in July, 1877, was recalled to succeed the army in 1828, and was immediately sent by Savfet Pasha as Minister of Foreign Affairs; Mahmoud II. to the military academy of Vienbut, before one month was past, was forced to Here he acquired a knowledge of Gerresign. As a scholar he gained considerable man, which he speaks quite fluently, reading reputation by his translation of Michaud's also with decided predilection German news“History of the Crusades."

papers. On bis return to Constantinople he ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS Cabot, died in was rapidly promoted, and his efforts toward Fair Haven, Conn., June 17, 1877. He was born the reorganization of the imperial forces conin Brunswick, Me., September 18, 1805, and tributed greatly to the realization of the rewas educated at Bowdoin College and Apdover forms contemplated by the Sultans Mahmoud Theological Seminary, graduating from the for- and Abdul Medjid. He has been Mushir for mer in 1825. He was ordained to the minis- more than twenty-five years, and has served try in the Congregational Church in 1830, and in all the wars of Turkey of recent times. was settled successively at Worcester, Rox- When Hussein Avni Pasha was assassinated in bury, and Nantucket, Mass. His first published 1876, he was appointed Seraskier or Minister work, “The Mother at Home," appeared in of War in his place, but resigned, when war be1833, and was followed not long after by “The came imminent, to assume the chief command. Child at Home." In 1814 he relinquished the During the campaign against Servia in 1876 he pastorate, and devoted himself exclusively to gained great credit for the successful issue of literature, but occasionally resumed his minis- the war, and owed to this his appointment as terial labors for brief periods, and in 1866-'68 Serdar Ekrem, or commander-in-chief of the acted as stated supply in New Haven. With Turkish army. He was removed from this few exceptions his works have been professedly position on July 19, as his inactivity, which historical. The principal of them are: “Prac- permitted the Russians to advance almost untical Christianity; " "Kings and Queens, or Life opposed, met with disfavor in Constantinople. in the Palace;” “The French Revolution of He hates Christians, in spite of his long inter1789; " " The History of Napoleon Bonaparte course with them, while his morose and mis(2 vols.); "Napoleon at St. Helena ; " " The anthropic temperament has frequently gained


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for him the disfavor of his sovereigns. But under an hereditary chief. In 1869 or 1870, he was adored by his soldiers, always looking Walad Denkal, the chief of Hamasen, carried after their comfort and well-being.

on a clandestine correspondence with the EmABYSSINIA, a country of Eastern Africa; peror Napoleon. In this he was detected by area about 158,000 square miles; population va- Johannes, who imprisoned him at Adowa. riously estimated at from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. The ruler of the country is King John. The news from Abyssinia during the year 1877 was of a very conflicting nature. It was several times reported that peace had been concluded with Egypt, and as often contradicted. No hostilities, however, seem to have taken place between the two countries. On October 27th an English correspondent wrote as follows:

Six months ago King John of Abyssinia made a convention with Colonel Gordon, wbich, though of an informal character, really amounted to a treaty of peace between Egypt and Abyssinia. He was then harassed by neighboring enemies, and the terms he accepted were favorable to Egypt. Since that time the relations of the two countries have been peaceful. But Colonel Gordon a few days ago telegraphed for a ship-of-war to go down the Red Sea. This looks very much as if King John, like some other people, considered treaties matters of imperfect obligation, to be set aside or respected according to circumstances. The King, however, has a great respect for Colonel Gordon, and it is to be hoped the difficulty may be arranged.

It is stated that the recent war between Egypt and Abyssinia was mainly due to a personal enmity between King Johannes and Munzinger This rendered the people of Hamasen disconBey, the Egyptian governor of Massowah. An- tented with Abyssinian rule, and some of their other cause was furnished by the inevitable chiefs who knew Munzinger made overtures to raids which exist on the ill-defined borders, him, which led to the expedition of Arendrup. where the frontier tribes sometimes join one

Walad Denkal was thereupon released by Joside, sometimes the other.

hannes, and on his promise of fidelity was alAbyssinia may roughly be stated to be di- lowed to return to the Hamasen on the defeat vided into the provinces of 'Harnasen, Tigre, of Arendrup. Then came the greater expedi

tion in 1876, which resulted in a defeat of the Egyptians on the 18th of March, and of the Abyssinians on the 19th of March, the losses on both sides not much exceeding one another. Previously, however, to these battles, Walad Denkal came over with all his force into Egypt, and afterward he retired into Egyptian territory with the Egyptian troops. Since March, 1876, there have been no hostilities between Abyssinia and Egypt. The Abyssinian troops, being irregulars, and having no system, eat up the country if kept long together. Every man being a soldier, no one is left to till the fields in a lengthened campaign. Tribute is exacted twice, and even three times a year, and the tax-collectors take twice, and more than

twice, the proper tribute. The result is con$

stant revolts, brought about by the illegal levy of taxes by the King's semi-independent chiefs. Where Johannes is he is King, and only there. His position is very difficult; his independent chiefs oppose any standing army, and therefore will never let him form one; for they

know it would be their death-knell. Till a Amhara, and Godjam. The King's authority standing army is formed, there can be no quiet was recognized fully in Hamasen, Tigre, and in Abyssinia. Amhara, but not entirely so in Godjam. Shoa Between the frontier of Abyssinia and the was under a separate king. Wallo Galla never Red Sea is the Mussulman tribe of Danakli. submitted to Johannes. Each province was It is hostile to Johannes, and forces him to





pay tribute if his people pass its territory.

ADVENTISTS. 1. ADVENT CHRISTIANS.These people have never paid him tribute, The annual meeting of the Western Advent but did so to Egypt. The policy of Egypt is Christian Publishing Society was held in now to abstain from any communication with Chicago, Ill., August 30th. Elder C. W. Smith any of the chiefs of Abyssinia, to regard Jo- presided. The society publishes a weekly hannes and the King of Shoa as independent, journal called the Advent Christian Times. and to keep clear of all the political questions A proposition for a consolidation of this jourof both those regions.

nal with the Bible Banner, published in New There have been only three engagements, in York City, was discussed, but not decided upon. which the Egyptians have twice been worsted, The business agent reported that a more exbut not in any way so completely as has been tensive work had been done in the publishing represented. Had it suited Egypt to con- of tracts than for several years previous. Betinue the war, she must have eventually pre- sides a new edition of the “ Advent Minstrels," vailed, for the Abyssinians could not keep a and nearly four thousand tracts of the stereolarge force together for any time. As it was, type editions, considerable editions had been several vassal states threw off their allegiance published of tracts on “Christian Faith,” the moment the war ceased, taking advantage in Christian Hope,” “ Christian Ordinances,” of Johannes's enfeebled condition, and driven “The Christian Sabbath,” “Evidences of the to revolt by the increased taxation consequent Coining of our Lord,” and a pamphlet on on the war.

“ The Great Pyramid,” making, in all, 26,000 A war broke out during 1877 between Jo- new tracts and pamphlets issued during the hannes and King Menelek of Shoa. Nothing year. The total amount of issues of tracts and was known of this war beyond the fact that, books for the year was about 31,000 in number, in the middle of June, there was a battle in or 336,000 pages. The resources of the society which King Menelek was worsted. Another and its work were computed at $4,618.38, and battle was reported to have occurred on Sep- the liabilities at $1,362.87, showing an excess tember 17th, in which Menelek was completely of $3,255.51 in resources. The business operadefeated, losing, according to a report, 20,000 tions of the year had been attended with a not killed and wounded, and 10.000 prisoners. gain of $723.36. King Johannes, who was slightly wounded, II. SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS.— The followwas reported to have lost 9,000 men. It was ing is a summary of the statistics of this deasserted by some that Menelek had been nomination as they were reported to the Genkilled, by others that he escaped with 7,000 eral Conference in September, 1877: men.

ADAMS, EDWIN, an American actor, was born near Boston, Mass., February 3, 1834, and died in Philadelphia, Pa., October 25, 1877. He made his first appearance on the stage in Boston, August 29, 1853, at the National Thea- Maine.. tre, acting Stephen in the “Hunchback." In

New England.. 1854 he appeared in Philadelphia at the Chest- New York and Pennsylvania.. nat Street Theatre, and, after acting in Balti- Ohio..


3,258 more, Md., he came out about 1860 as Hamlet, indiana.. and also in other great parts, in Buffalo, N. Y. He subsequently appeared with Miss Kate Bateman and Mr. J. W. Wallack at the Win

1,365 ter Garden, New York, and remained with this combination for a considerable time, appearing in various parts of the country. In Kentucky and Tennessee. 1866 he reappeared in New York at the Broadway Theatre (Wallack's old theatre), playing European Mission. Robert Landry in the “Dead Heart," and

473 11,708 Adrian de Teligny in “ The Heretic.” On the opening of Booth's Theatre, February 3, 1867, he appeared as Mercutio, and shortly after The total amount of pledges to the fund of enacted Narcisse, lago, Raphael, Rover, and Systematic Benevolence was $47,176.56. The Claude Melnotte. He played Enoch Arden at treasurer of the General Conference accounted the same theatre for the first time in New York for the sum of $4,055.91 which had passed on June 21, 1869, and appeared in this char- through his hands. acter, and others, in various cities for the last The treasurer of the Seventh-Day Adventist five years. He visited Australia, where he de Publishing Association reported to the annual clined in health, and returned thence to San meeting, held in September, that his receipts Francisco. There he was the recipient of a for the year had been $185,102.67, and that generous benefit, which was followed by others he had a balance in hand of $3,636.21. The in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and other total assets of the Association were estimated

at a value of $160,993.34, and the total amount



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of indebtedness was $62,019.81, leaving a clear teenth anniversary of the Life and Advent balance of assets of $98,973.58.

Union was held at Wolfboro', N. H., August The receipts of the Health Reform Institute 8th. Mr. G. K. Carroll presided. The treasurer for the year ending in September, 1877, were reported the receipt of $1,238.25, and the ex$36,648.04, and the expenditures during the penditure of $1,549.46. The receipts of the same period were $33,139.52. The assets of business agent had been $3,397.54, and his exthe Institute were valued at $58,805.13, and penditures $3,856.29. It was resolved to raise its liabilities were $12,928.82. Four hundred $1,800 for the purposes of the Union during and ninty-three patients, residents of twenty- the ensuing year. The sum of $842 was pledged three different States and the Canadas, were to this purpose during the meeting. treated at the institution during the year, and The sixth anniversary of the Life and Adno death occurred. Measures were taken look- vent Missionary Society was held at Wolfboro', ing to a change in the name of the Institute. N. H., August 10th. The treasurer reported

The treasurer of the Seventh-Day Adventist that his receipts for the year bad been $71.66, Educational Society reported at the annual and his expenditures $137.68. The society remeeting of the society, September 24th, that solved to endeavor to raise $200 for missionhis receipts for the year had been $11,289.63. ary efforts. Forty-six dollars were subscribed The property of the society consisted of the toward this sum at the meeting. A tent-meetcollege grounds and buildings at Battle Creek, ing was appointed to be held at Provincetown, Mich., detached lots, seven new buildings, etc., Mass. and were valued at $56,477.52, while the lia- AFGHANISTAN,* a country in Central bilities amounted to $9,306.29.

Asia; area, 278,000 square miles, population The sixteenth annual session of the General about 4,000,000. The tribes inhabiting the Conference of the Seventh-Day Adventists was northwestern frontier of India fall under three held at Lansing, Mich., beginning September divisions: the idolatrous Kafirs and other tribes 20th. Elder James White was elected presi- of the countries of Afghanistan opposite the dent. A report was made concerning the mis- Cashmere frontier, the Pathan or Afghan tribes sionary work of the conference in Denmark, opposite the Punjaub frontier, and the Belooch showing it to be in a prosperous condition. and Brahoe tribes opposite the Sinde frontier. In view of the favorable opening which ap- They all claim independence, and in Afghanpeared among the Swedes, Norwegians, and istan are virtually independent and under no Danes, in the United States, and in the Scan- ' rule whatever, except that of their own chiefs, dinavian countries themselves, young men of who are seldom obeyed one instant longer than those nationalities were invited to prepare is convenient. The only authority, indeed, revthemselves for preaching. The conference ex- erenced by the Afghan tribes is that of the pressed the hope that it might soon be able to Akhund of Swat, wbo accidentally gained his establish a mission-field in the English-speak- ascendancy over them through his reputation ing parts of Europe. The president of the as a saint. The Amir of Cabool, Shere Ali, conference was advised to visit the southern however, is the nominal ruler of Afghanistan. field in the United States, or to send some one The Afghans style themselves the Bani Isin his place, accompanied by other laborers. rael, or Sons of Israel, and claim descent in a A Biblical Institute having been held in Cali- direct line from Saul. Saul had two sons, fornia with the result of almost doubling the Barakiah and Iramia, and the latter a son number of laborers of the church in that Štate, named Afghana. When Bakht-n-Nasr (Nebuthe holding of similar institutes in other States chadnezzar) took the children of Israel into was advised. The possession of the gift of captivity, the Afghana were driven into the prophecy by Mrs. White, the wife of Elder mountains about Herat, and afterward extended James White, was recognized, and to it was their migrations eastward into the Cabool valascribed the unity of doctrine and practice ley and to the borders of Sinde and Beloowhich prevailed among all the Seventh-Day chistan, where many of the tribe fell into idolaAdventists, while other bodies of Adventists try. They first heard of Mohammed nine years were crippled by division. The conference after his announcement of his mission. They rescinded all that part of an address on “Leader- sent six of their chief men under a leader called ship” which had been passed in 1873, which Kish to Medina, where they at once embraced taught that the leadership of the body was the new religion, and returned to Afghanistan confined to any one man, and declared by reso- to convert their fellow countrymen; and in lution that “the highest authority under God the course of a few years a large proportion among Seventh-Day Adventists is found in the of them became Mohammedans. But many will of the body of that people, as expressed resisted to the last, and there is a tradition still in the decisions of the General Conference when current among the Afghans that the Khyber acting within its proper jurisdiction; and that hills were inhabited, until a comparatively resuch decisions should be submitted to by all cent period, by a colony of Jews. The prinwithout exception, unless they can be shown cipal tribes are the Durranis, Tarins, Kakars, to be in conflict with the word of God and the . Glilzais, Provindahs, and others of Afghanistan rights of individual conscience."

* For an account of ihe population of the several provIII. LIFE AND ADVENT UNION.—The four- inces, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1874.

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proper, and on the northwestern frontier the the justness of the claims of the Amir on BeloochisYusufzas, numbering altogether 73,000 fight- tan, and only remark that Afghanistan has as many, ing men, the Afridis, 20,000; and the Wuzeris, Badakhshan and Roshan in the northeast. The trib

or rather as few, claims on Kelat and Quetta as on 30,000. The differences between the Indian utary relations to Cabool of both points were always Government and the Afridis, a tribe inhabiting of a very doubtful character, and it is only due to a the Kobat Pass, was definitely settled in March British-Russian agreement that Afghan tax-collecby the complete subjection of the latter, who lat and Quetta, however, Afghan officers have never

tors are at present established in Fyzabad. In Kefurnished thirty hostages for their future good been tolerated. If Shere Ali Khan should seriously behavior. The Kohat Pass was formally opened regret the British successes in Beloochistan, he is on March 24. This was of great importance, acting under the impulse of Russian instigation, but, as the Indian Government now hold all three that the latter should succeed in fanning this dissatpasses leading to Afghanistan, the Bolan Pass, to doubt very strongly. For we must not overlook

isfaction into a war against India, we are compelled the Khyber Pass, and the Kohat Pass, and can that, during the past year, such factors have gained at any moment send its troops across the fron- prominence in Cabool, India, and the other Mohamtier. On January 24, Sir Lewis Pelly arrived medan countries of Central Asia, which make a coin Peshawer, as special envoy of the Indian operation with Russia impossible. We may ridicule Government, to meet and confer with the spe- Mecca, and Bagdad, have sent to their co-religionists

the messages which the sheiks of Constantinople, cial envoy of the Amir of Cabool, Syyid Wur in the far East, and may doubt the awakening of PanMohammed Shah, the prime minister of Cabool. The result of the conferences remained 8 secret. In April, the envoy of the Amir died, and another was appointed in his place. But, before the latter arrived in Peshawer, Sir L. Pelly received orders to embark for Europe, and the conference therefore came to an end. H. Vambery, in an article in the Augsburg Gazette of May 12, after giving an account of the relations between Afghanistan and Russia and England, stating that the policy of the present Amir, Shere Ali Khan, had been to receive money and arms from the British, and Mohammedan ideas, yet it is still difficult to believe at the same time negotiate with the Russians, that the reports of the danger threatening Islam while lately he had committed several acts of mund or the valleys of the Hindoo Koosh, and that

were entirely disregarded on the shores of the Heldiscourtesy toward the British, describes the

an alliance with the Czar, the antichrist of the Mopresent relations of the Amir to the two pow- hammedan legend, was possible. I have never had ers as follows:

great confidence in the religious zeal of the Afghan

warriors, intent only on plunder; but neither can I The British Munshi, accredited at Bula-Hissar, see that the Government at Cabool would act on orders the citadel of Cabool, constantly complained of acts received from Tashkend or St. Petersburg, or that of discourtesy at the hands of the Amir; and, as it would go to war with the Empress of India, who the border difficulties in the Khyber Pass, together permits collections to be taken up on the Indus as with the ever-increasing reports of Russian mis- well as on the Ganges for the soldiers of the Sultan, sions to Cabool, could no longer fail to interest and who allows enthusiastic speeches for the Caliph the British, Lord Lytton in the beginning of this to be made in English meetings. year arranged a conference at Peshawer for the purpose of settling all disputed points. The Amir Emil von Schlagintweit, the well-known sent one of his best diplomatists to the Conference, German traveler, gives the following descripbut, as the latter unfortunately died at Peshawer, tion of the state of affairs in Afghanistan: “In and, on the other hand, the satisfactory conclusion of the British negotiations with the Khan of Ke- Afghanistan a disorder is brewing, which will lat had not inclined the Amir to continue the soon be fully equal to that in Kelat before the diplomatic negotiations, the report arose of a se- advent of the British troops; but in this case rious breach between Cabool and Calcutta, while at a deadly hatred of the Amir against the British the same time, and in connection with this report, is clearly manifest. In May, the English mail the telegram announcing the outbreak of hostilities between the two countries was sent out, of course

was robbed, which, since 1874, had gone to from Russian sources. We will not consider here Djellalabad, half-way between Peshawer and



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