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Cabool, with great regularity, and had en-bers expressed themselves to the effect that joyed great security under the protection of the Russians are great in promising, but that the mountain tribes. It was furthermore de- they were not known to keep their promises. finitely settled that the treaty of 1873, accord- One of the Sirdars even remarked: “These ing to which the Amir was to receive 20,000 golden but treacherous promises have brought breech-loaders and a sum of about $500,000 as us unfriendly relations with the British Gova present for the concessions made by him with ernment for India, and I cannot but wonder regard to the border of Seistan toward Persia, that the Amir is delighted with these proposicould not be executed. He actually received tions, and seriously believes in the fulfillment the arms and one-half the money, but, upon be- of the promises.” To this the Amir replied: ing asked to determine the time and place when “I am convinced that I may be deceived by he would wish to receive the other half, he an- the Russians, but I do not wish to break off swered, that he did not care for the money, negotiations with them yet.” The assembly he would make a present of it to England, the finally resolved to submit the Russian proposi

tion to the Akhund of Swat, and in the mean while admit the Russian agent to the durbar without showing him any particular honors; on the other hand, the British agent, Mohammed Khan, was not to be invited to the sessions till the close of the Russo-Turkish war, as the honesty of the British sympathies for the cause of Islam was still to be proved. At a later session the Russian agent made a proposal that Russian troops be granted a free passage through Afghanistan, and the

right to establish garTHE CITADEL, HERAT.

risons at any point in

case the British should amount was too small. This conduct appears advance from Quetta against Herat. This all the more insolent, when we are told that the proposition was immediately rejected by the state treasury was entirely empty, and the great- Amir, who fears nothing more than foreign est extortions were made use of in order to ob- troops in his dominions, and who refused to tain money. Thus all the high dignitaries of the receive an Englishman as permanent Britcapital were recently taxed large sums because ish ambassador, because the Indian Governthey were said to have defrauded the public ment desired to furnish him with a consideratreasury. In order to avoid a criminal prosecu- ble escort. Herr von Schlagintweit adds that tion, they all paid the sums of money demand- this news comes from too good a source to be ed of them, but they all sought to retrieve their doubted. losses from the people; and, as the officials At the Conference of Peshawer, Sir Lewis have full power to plunder their subordinates, Pelly made the continuance of the subsidy desuch acts tend to increase the existing dissatis- pendent on the following conditions: To acfaction.” Herr von Schlagintweit then goes on cept a permanent English resident at Cabool, to say that in India it is generally assumed that and to place at the head of the Afghan troops this line of conduct at Cabool is brought about a number of English officers, who should take by the negotiations of the Amir for Russian care that the soldiers were regularly paid. As friendship. It is now known that a Russian Shere Ali's pride did not allow him to accept agent was in Cabool quite recently, is still these proposals, which would have reduced there, and made some definite propositions, him to the condition of a vassal, and hampered but did not have an official character. Indian his freedom of action, the yearly subsidy was papers stated that the Russian Government stopped. Notwithstanding this unsuccessful had offered about $3,000,000 for the privilege issue of the Peshawer negotiations, the Afghan of placing a Russian force in cantonments Amir long hesitated to break openly with his on Afghan territory, somewhere near the old allies, though he was instigated to do so border. This offer was read in a grand dur- by the Akhund of Swat and by his own people, bar in Cabool on July 15th. All the mem- who more than once expressed their hostility

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to the English. The aged Akhund, who is a it is said, there are 66,000 men in the neighviolent hater of British influence, and enjoys borhood of Cabool; and in all the provinces a immense respect not only in his own little conscription is going on. country, but throughout the whole of Afgbanis- Upon the breaking out of the war with Rustan, repeatedly demanded that Shere Ali should sia, the Sultan of Turkey sent an embassador immediately break off all relations with Eng- to Shere Ali with presents. He did not reach land, reproaching him with hypocrisy and sub- Cabool until September, owing to the delay on serviency to the Giaours. Having convinced the part of the Amir in granting him permishimself that the Amir still hesitated to take a sion to enter bis country. Upon his arrival decided step, the Akhund, on his own author- the Amir refused to accept the Turkish presity, called upon the Kadis of Cabool and Can- ents, unless the embassador should declare dahar to declare a holy war against the Eng- that no conditions were connected with their lish. In consequence of this, a great popular acceptance, such as, to break off all intercourse demonstration was made under the auspices with the Russians, and to form an alliance with of the clergy, and Shere Ali began to prepare the British. He declared himself unable to for war. The taxes on agriculture and manu- assist Turkey, as he was too far distant and too factures were considerably augmented, and each weak; nor could he ally himself with the Brithouse had to furnish a certain amount of iron ish, as long as they held territories which in in the form of kettles, pots, and similar articles reality belonged to him. for casting cannon. The casting operations AFRICA. The area and population of the have proceeded very slowly-not more than different divisions and subdivisions of Africa three or four guns per month—but the raising were estimated as follows at the close of of troops has been rapid enough. At present, 1877:

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An important change took place in 1877 The blockade of the coast of Dahomey by in the political aspect of Africa. An inde- British men-of-war was raised in May. pendent state, the Transvaal Republic, after Advices from Congo, dated January 15th, a separate existence of exactly twenty-five stated that the British war vessel Avon had deyears, ceased to exist, and was incorporated stroyed seven villages on the Congo River, and in the British dominions. The British com- killed three natives, as a punishment for plunmissioner, who had been appointed to watch dering the American schooner Thomas Nickerthe affairs in the republic, came to the con- son, of New York. This vessel had been capclusion that, if the inhabitants were per- tured by the natives, and about thirty tons of mitted to proceed unrestrained, they would coffee were carried off up the country. She not only bring about their own destruction, was fired by the Avon, in order to prevent but would also endanger the British colonies. further plundering. Under these circumstances, he considered it The King of Gaboon died dnring the early advisable to proclaim the annexation of the part of the year, aged nearly one hundred years. country to the British crown, which he did His son, Adande, on succeeding him, abolished on April 12. (See TRANSVAAL REPUBLIC.) a number of objectionable customs. He dis

The Cape Colony, which received a new charged the hundred women of his father's governor in March, in the person of Sir Bartle harem, liberated fifty slaves, and abolished the Frere, was the scene of a Caffre war in the sacrifice of human beings at religious rites. latter part of the year, which resulted in the Among the works of the year containing acquisition of new territory. (See Cape Col- information on Africa are, V. L. Cameron, ONY.)

"Across Africa" (2 vols., London, 1877); M..

Th. von Heuglin, “Reise in Nordost-Afrika” treaty of peace did not seem to have been con(2 vols., Brunswick, 1877).

cluded. On the other hand, Abyssinia was the The war between Russia and Turkey also made itself felt in Egypt, which, as a tributary to the Porte, was bound to furnish troops and money. After a great deal of deliberation the Egyptian Government decided to furnish a contingent of troops, but declared itself unable to do any more. The English Government manifested its interest in the future of Egypt in a very decided manner, and rumors were afloat that it intended to purchase from the

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scene of civil war between King Johannes and the King of Shoa, in which the latter seemed to have been worsted. (See ABYSSINIA.)

AGRICULTURE. The International Statistical Congress, which assembled at St. Petersburg in 1872, confided to the Statistical Corps of the French Government the compilation of the Agricultural Statistics of Europe. The work has recently appeared, and it contains

returns chiefly for the year 1873. In some Sultan his suzerain rights over the country. instances the average production is given; in (See EGYPT.)

others that of the year. The two following The relations of Abyssinia with Egypt were tables show the crop of wheat, etc., in the not disturbed by war during 1877, although a various countries :











18.881 8,151,925 1,304,175

Great Britain...




87,978 35,945,699 69,741,730

2,145,528 73,731,406 21,626,587

5,838,707 21,449,672 4,630,765 4,714,589 686,929

408,672 5,318,798 23,991,203 295,654,462

8,171,749 117,563,872 107,381,080

5,102,894 40,867,200

4,086,720 33,787,161


178,510 9,143,698

826,624 15,985,926 616,954,569 11,431,464 74,407,428 65,272,201

8,684,690 173,455,783 24,550,562 12,274,827 1,855,870 1,752,181 8,180,050 1,561,899 1,175,546 9,368,221 18,123,888 74,667,825

8,896,595 25,516,775 8,740,887

123,009 10,216,800

610,840 5,887,204


8,865,154 17,276,495

8,781,970 12,574,379 124,255,047

6,212,382 46,234,017 83,495,519

1,430,352 86,742,609 17,501,814 6.811,012 5,883,478 4,134,966 8,622,180 1,567,200

836,143 4,781,600 8,787.910 57,452,839

2,839,498 58,471,962 13,821,216

2,059,506 25,512,000




8,006,282 91,486,937 41,874,609

5,212,786 227,434,922 25,897,914 8,969,845 9,565,541 3,839,191 2,812,481 1,904,156 1,862,012 11,307,622 24,124,478 199,592,269


49,744 295,228

6,769 27,585 24,225

3,199,944 1,320,064 32,490,219

200,028 8,065,040

510,840 8,449,464

263,088 1,021,680 227,318

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Austria produces an average of 10,172,028 Spain, Italy, and France raise a larger proporbushels of maslin; Würtemberg, 778,362; Ba- tion of wheat than any other grain; Finland, den, 805,992; Hesse-Darmstadt, 266,567; Bel- Switzerland, and Germany, of rye; Scandinagium, 2,034,383 ; France, 21,998,669. Great via and Germany, of barley; Ireland, Hungary, Britain produces an average of 6,063 tons of and North Germany, of oats. Maize holds first sugar-beets; Hungary, 686,571; Würtemberg, rank in Roumania, Servia, and Portugal; buck114,013; Baden, 39,735; Hesse-Darmstadt, wheat has but little importance, except in Hol420,448; Saxe-Weimar, 13,229; Saxe-Alten- land and France. Oats is the leading crop of burg, 22,229 ; Holland, 475,766; Belgium, 613,- Europe, followed by wheat and rye. 666; France, 9,598,989. The following is the Of potatoes, Ireland produces 23 bushels per average product of hops: Great Britain, 56,441 capita; the German Empire, 18.1; Holland, tons; Denmark, 585; Sweden, 2,205; Finland, 14.5; Belgium, 11.6; France, 10.2; Scandina220; Hungary, 864; Bavaria, 23,857; Würtem- via, 9.9; Austria-Hungary, 84; Russia and Finberg, 8,535; Baden, 3,140; Holland, 242; Bel- land, 41; Great Britain, 34; Italy, 1.1; Portugium, 5,474; France, 5,100.

gal, 0.85; Spain, 0.28. In the other States this The average annual production of cereals of culture is still more insignificant. all sorts in Europe is estimated at 5,153,808,000 The "industrial plants," including colza, flax, bushels, of which 1,657,392,000 bushels, or hemp, sugar-beet, hops, and tobacco, are grown nearly a third, are assigned to Russia; 766,- to a considerable extent in those countries in 260,000 bushels, or nearly 15 per cent., to Ger- which a varied culture is pursued. Roumania many; 709,500,000 bushels, or nearly 14 per produces 884 bushels of colza per hundred of cent., to France; 567,600,000 bushels, or over her population; Belgium, 344; Holland, 27; 11 per cent., to Austria-Hungary. Europe pro- France, 22; Hungary, 204; Germany, 141; duces a little over 17 bushels per capita of her Denmark, 44. This plant is a species of cabpopulation. The average ratio per capita of bage, raised for its seed, from which a kind of the different countries of Europe is given as lamp-oil is expressed. The largest proportion follows: Roumania, 40.8 bushels; Denmark, of hemp is raised in Hungary, amounting to 61 331; Russia, 23; Prussia, 224; France, 194; pounds per capita ; Germany averages 50 ; FinHungary, 19}; Bavaria, 183; Sweden, 15.6; land, 434; France, 321; Sweden, 201; RouGerman duchies, 14.5; Belgium and Spain, 13.9; mania, 124; Belgium, 8). In flax Ireland takes Austria and Würtemberg, 13.3; Ireland and the lead, producing 13.9 pounds per capita ; Turkey, 13; Finland, 12.5; Great Britain, 11.9; Belgium, 10.14; Holland, 71; France, 3, etc. Saxony and Servia, 10.7; Holland, 9; Norway France is the great sugar-beet country of Euand Greece, 8.8; Italy and Portugal, 7.9; Switz- rope, her crops averaging 531 pounds per capierland, 5.9.

ta; next, Holland, 260 pounds; Belgium, 233 Estimating the average consumption at 15.6 pounds; Hungary, 883; Germany, 74.3.

Of bashels per capita for food, seed, and various hops, Germany and Great Britain each average manufactures, Europe produces about enough about 44 pounds per capita ; France less than to meet her own demand, except in wheat and 2, etc. Tobacco-culture is limited in Europe, some other breadstuffs, which exhibit a consid- yet Hungary produces 5 pounds per capita, and erable deficiency to be supplied by importation. Germany 4j; smaller products are noted in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Holland, Belgium, gary stand at the head of horse-owning States; France, and Roumania.

Spain, of mules; Ireland, Denmark, Bavaria, The number of domestic animals in 28 Euro- Finland, Norway, and Würtemberg, of cattle; pean States is given at 379,031,705, of which Spain, Great Britain, Roumania, Denmark, 31,573,663 are horses, 4,136,031 asses and Ilungary, and Norway, of sheep; Hungary, mules, 89,678,248 cattle, 194,026,236 sleep, Spain, Denmark, and the German duckies, of 42,686,493 swine, and 16,931,034 goats. Tak- swine; Greece stands at the head of the goating all the States together, there are for each owning States; next, with a wide interval, 1,000 inhabitants 112 horses, 15 asses and comes Spain, and then Portugal. The folmules, 318 cattle, 687 sheep. 151 swine, and 61 lowing table gives the more important degoats. Russia, Denmark, Finland, and Hun- tails :

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Other Produc-
tive land.

Total Produc-
tive Land.

The amount and distribution of productive portions of productive area in different counland in a number of these countries are as tries. The States of the German Empire reprefollows:

sented in the above table have utilized nearly

the whole of their respective territories in Land under

some form of production, their proportion of Tillage.

waste land varying from 4 to 11.3 per cent. of Acres. Acres.

Acres. the whole. At the other extreme, as might Great Britain.. 18,317,276 15,281.530 83,398,806 Ireland, . 5,293,928 10.742,511

be expected, are those bleak, inhospitable

16,026.739 Denmark.

8,431,925 3,013,274 6,448,199 northern regions, Finland, Sweden, and NorNorway 1,570.631 20.015,910 21,596,541

way. The two former have about half, and Sweden

6,257,567 47,996,670 51.251.236 Finland

1,931,659 55,797.435 57.729.97 the latter nearly three-fourths, of their terriAustria

22,273,312 43,592.694 66,166,00 6 tories entirely unproductive. It is remarkable Hungary

27,966,121 41.935,140 69.901,261 Bavaria.. 7,666,407 9.524.8-6 17,191,293

that Portugal, in a bright southern climate, Saxony..

1,863,329 1.561,560 8.424.653 has less than half her area occupied with any Würtemberg 2,093,393 2.481,978 4,575,571

sort of production. This is partly due to the Baden..

1,499,969 1,984,293 3,453.262 Hesse-Darmstadt.. 1,043,620 899,012 1,932,632 very large surface covered by her mountain Saxe-Weimar. 499,665 312,315 810,950

ranges. Great Britain utilizes but 58 per cent. Saxe-Altenburg 190,579 120,241

310, 20 Holland. 2,437,033 8,263,053 5,700,086

of her territory in agricultural production, and Belgium..

8,926,704 2,007,087 6.933,791 28 per cent. of her agricultural lands are unFrance. 64,984,190 45,209,091 110,193,281

used, leaving about 14 per cent for sites of Portugal.

4,551,400 6,449,571 11,000,971 Roumania.

8,656,770 11,515,343 20,175,113 cities and towns, lakes, streams, roads, etc. In the above classification, lands under til

France and Belgium utilize in agriculture fivelage, or regular plough-culture, whether in a

sixths of their lands, including mountains and system of rotation or otherwise, constitute the

rivers. Austro-Hungary loses only from 10 to first grand division, which includes cereals,

12 per cent., Holland nearly a third, and Irefarinaceous crops (such as pease, beans, and po

land nearly a fourth of their respective areas.

Of lands under tillage, the States showing tatoes), grass crops, and all others, together with land in fallow. The other grand division

the largest proportion, in descending order,

are Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Weimar, Belgium, of productive lands, not subjected to regular or periodical plough-breaking, includes orchards, half her territory under plough-culture.

and Hesse-Darmstadt, each of which has over vineyards, pastures, and woods and forests. A wide range of difference is found in the pro

* Including cows.

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