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KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles:

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method alone is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done:

as in fate, or in bare.

, as in alms, Fr. âme, Ger. Bahn=a of Indian names.

names.

E, as in me=i in machine.

e, as in met.

é, as in her.

I, as in pine, or as ei in Ger. Mein.
i, as in pin, also used for the short
sound corresponding to ē, as in
French and Italian words.

eu,

a long sound as in Fr. jedne,=" Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe (Goethe).

eu, corresponding sound short or medium, as in Fr. peu Ger. ō short. ō, as in note, moan.

, the same sound short or medium, as in Fr. bal, Ger. Mann. a, as in fat.

as in fall.

a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u inö, as in move, two.

but, è in her: common in Indian

u, as in tube.

u, as in tub: similar to è and also to a
H, as in bull.

ü, as in Sc abune=Fr. 4 as in da,
Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne.
ů, the corresponding short or medium
sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller.
oi, as in oil.

Jou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.

Madrid, etc.

is always hard, as in go.
represents the guttural in
loch, Ger. nach, also other similar
gutturals.

n, Fr. nasal n as in bon.
represents both English, and r in
foreign words, in which it is gen-

o, as in not,frog-that is, short or medium.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols e employed:

S

Ich is always as in rich.

d, nearly as th in this Sp. d ins, always as in so.

th, as th in thin.

erally much more strongly trilled.

th, as th in this.

Scotch w always consonanta, as in we.
x = ks, which are used instead.
y always consonantal, as in yea (Fr.
ligne would be re-written lêny).
zh, as a in pleasure = Fr. ¿

WINSTON'S CUMULATIVE ENCYCLOPEDIA

VOLUME VIII

Perfumes (per'fümz), substances artificial musk differs widely in odor from emitting an agreeable odor, true musk, but it is a delightful perfume, and used about the person, the dress, with many applications in perfumery.

or the dwelling. Perfumes of various Pergamus (per'ga-mus), or PERGA

sorts have been held in high estimation

MUM, an ancient in from the most ancient times. The Egyp- the west of Asia Minor, north of Smyrna, tians, Hebrews, Phoenicians, Assyrians on the Caïcus. It was founded by and Persians are known to have made emigrants from Greece, and rose to imgreat use of them, as did also the Greeks portance about the commencement of the and Romans. In the middle ages France third century B.C., when it was made the and Italy were most conspicuous for the capital of an independent state, which use and preparation of perfumes. Per- subsequently became a Roman province. fumes are partly of animal but chiefly Pergamus was one of the most magnificent of vegetable origin. They may be divided cities of antiquity. Many fine remains into two classes, crude and prepared. still exist in evidence of its former granThe former consist of such animal per- deur, and valuable results have been fumes as musk, civet, ambergris, and obtained through excavations carried out such vegetable perfumes as are obtained by the Prussian government. The modin the form of essential oils. The pre- ern town Bergama (which see) occupies pared perfumes, many of them known its site. by fancy consist various mixtures or preparations of odorous sub- Pergola

(pergola) term adopted

a

stances made up according to recipe. At of trellis work over which are trained the present time the manufacture of per- vines, and especially for such an arbor fumes is chiefly carried on in Paris and covering a path, walk or veranda. London, and in various towns near the

GIOVANNA

Mediterranean, especially in the south Pergolesi (per-go-la'sē),
BATTISTA, an Italian mu-

of France. Certain districts are famous sical composer, born at Jesi in 1710; for certain productions; as Cannes for studied at the conservatory of music at its perfumes of the rose, tuberose, cassia, Naples; produced his first oratorio and jasmine; Nimes for thyme, rosemary and his first opera in 1731; led a life of nolavender; Nice for the violet and mig- torious profligacy; and died at Pozzuoli nonette. England claims the superiority in March, 1736. His compositions are for her lavender, which is cultivated upon regarded as the best representations of a large scale at Mitcham in Surrey. The his period.

seat of the production of otto of roses Perianth (per'i-anth), in botany, the is Bulgaria, especially in the cantons of foral envelope, the calyx Kezanlik and Karlova. Of late years and corolla, or either. This term is apchemists have succeeded in producing a plied when the calyx and corolla are variety of artificial odoriferous sub- combined so that they cannot be satisstances, some identical with plant per- factorily distinguished from each other, fumes, others yielding new odors, Thus as in many monocotyledonous plants, the

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