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CHAP.
VIII.

like our Methodists: but, at present, all are united. There is nothing, therefore, of that sourness which is caused by dissent; and which, as it tends to separate the members of society from each other, tends also to sap the very foundations of Christianity ;-thereby proving the truth of an observation of Montesquieu', that “the most true and holy doctrines may be attended with the very worst consequences, where they are not connected with the principles of society.” One of the most essential objects of religion, when a State has many causes for hatred, is to produce many ways of reconciliation. Perhaps we ought to assign as a reason for the religious unanimity of Norway, that the same degree of ardour in religious matters which is found in our own country, and which in Great Britain has of itself given birth to the schisms that divide the members of its Christian community, has not yet been excited here. A great deal of what may be called indifferentism prevails on religious subjects among the Norwegians.

Upon the 28th of October, after taking leave of many of the inhabitants, Mr. B. Anker accom

(1) Esprit des Lois, liv. xxiv. ch, 19. p. 161.

CHAP:
VIII.

Fortress of

panied us in a boat round the Bay. We visited

the fortress, and saw the slaves at work. This Christiania. fortress is almost impregnable by land. We

were much delighted with the view of the river and the country from the ramparts. The water is so land-locked, that its appearance is that of a fine extensive lake, ornamented with islands, and surrounded by blue mountains in very pleasing shapes : but as far as we could judge of their elevation by the view of them, they have not the height of the mountains which surround the lakes of Westmoreland and Cumberland. The fortress seems to be strong; and there are some fine brass cannon upon the ramparts. The garrison consisted of twelve hundred men, including some chasseurs; and there were, besides, four companies of artillery. Afterwards, having dined privately with Mr. Anker, we retired with him to another apartment, where an elegant dessert had been set forth in the English way, with decanters of wine and glasses. We conversed with our intelligent host respecting the mines we had so lately visited; and he presented to us a specimen of native gold, found at a mine belonging to himself at Nummedalen near Kongsberg. In the evening, to gratify our curiosity, he put on his magnificent winter-dress, consisting of a pelisse, collar,

VIII.

and boots, of the choicest black furs. The CHAP. pelisse was made entirely of the skins of sables, and the collar and boots of bear's-skin. We had examined the fur-shops, in the hope of finding the skins of the Cat-Gaul, or Norwegian Lynx; but the animal, although sometimes taken, is certainly very rare in the country; and it is fortunate for the inhabitants that its visits are not more frequent. We spent the last evening of our stay in Christiania with this benevolent man; and having supped with him in the presence of his family, bade them farewell.

[graphic][merged small]

FROM CHRISTIANIA IN NORWAY, TO FAHLUN

IN SWEDEN.

The Author again sets out for SWEDENExecrable state

of the Roads before the snow falls--Holen-Change in the Roads in approaching Sweden-Spires of Norwegian Churches-Kiölstad-Hæberg-Cataract of Fon Fossen -Ous-Sindby— Appearance made by a Fair at Kongswinger-Money of the CountryEdsbroen—MagnorBoundary between Norway and SWEDEN-Singular instance of honesty in a Peasant - Morast-HagaStrand - Homeric Torches --Extraordinary Costume of the Natives of WerMBLAND- Aspect of the Country

Conse

Consequences of a recent Dearth-Hogsalla--Leerholm Skamnäs-- Improved appearance of the land-CARLSTAD -Exports and Imports - Population River Clara Brästegård-Molkem—Change in the dress of the Peasants-Manner of keeping the Roads in repair-Brättefors-Boulders-Trees-- Animals Philipstad-Uniform appearance of the Swedish TownsDress of the Natives-Enclosures —Juniper-trees-Onshytta — Two species of Tetrao or Black-Cock-Persberg-Descent into the Iron-Mines-Catastrophe which befell a Female Miner-Bottom of the Persberg Mine-Striking scene in the Great Cavern-- Imbedded state of the Ore-Långbanshytta - Machinery for the Mine-Pumps—Saxån– WBSTMANIA-Hälleforss —Nytorp-Nyakopparberg Minerals--Laxbro-Beauty of the Lakes-diminution of their waters-Hogforss-Hellsion-Ostanbo-Smedbacka - Blood-Cakes - Entrance of DALECARLIA -Varieties and luxuriance of the Fungi and MusciBommarsbo-Home Manufacture of Candles — RussGården-Naglarby-General Features of DALECARLIA -Character of the NativesDiulect- Antient Dance Original use of the Runic Staves— Retreat of Gustavus Vasa-Approach to Fahlun-External Aspect of its famous Copper-Mine. In the morning of the 29th of October, we left CHAP. Christiania in our phaëton, and once more began our journey towards SWEDEN. For this pur- again sets pose, it was necessary that we should retrace out for

Sweden. our former steps as far as Moe, before we took a different route; but the roads were so

IX.

The author

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