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James ii. 13.

servants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. 32 Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me: 33 shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee? 34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to

the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due [d unto u Prov. 17.. 13. him]. 35 u So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also

unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother [e their trespasses].

XIX. 1 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished

these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the a ch. xii 15. f coasts of Judæa beyond Jordan; 2 a and great multitudes

followed him ; and he healed them there.

3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying & unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? 4 And he answered and said unto d omitted in the oldest MSS. e omitted in the oldest MSS. I render, borders.

& omit.

who owed him aught. 31.] The fel. could only have full light cast on it by the low-servants were grieved, the lord is great act of Atonement which the Lord angry. Anger is not man's proper mood was about to accomplish. We may see towards sin, but sorrow (see Ps. cxix. 136), from that consideration, how properly it because all men are sinners. These fellow. belongs to this last period of His ministry. servants are the praying people of God, 35.] my Father, not your Father, as who plead with Him against the oppression in the similar declaration in ch. vi. 14, 15. and tyranny in the world. 32.“ When This is more solemn and denunciatory, he owed 10,000 talents, he never called him “for it is not seemly that God should be wicked, nor reviled him, but had compas. called the Father of such an one, so wicked sion on him." Chrysostom. 34. the and malicious." Chrysostom. tormentors] not merely the prison-keepers, CHAP. XIX. 1-12.] REPLY TO THE but the torturers. Remember he was to PHARISEE'S QUESTION CONCERNING DI. have been sold into slavery before, and now VORCE, Mark x. 1-12. This appears to his punishment is to be greater. The con- be the journey of our Lord into the region dition following would amount in the case beyond Jordan, mentioned John X. 40. If of the sum in the parable to perpetual im- so, a considerable interval has elapsed since prisonment. So Chrysostom, “that is, for the discourse in ch. xviii.

1.] The ever ; for he will never repay." See note borders of Judæa beyond Jordan forms one on ch. v. 26. There is a difficulty made, continuous description. Bethany, where He from the punishment of this debtor for went, was beyond Jordan, but on the conthe very debt which had been forgiven, and fines of Judæa. See notes on Mark x. 1, the question has been asked, ' whether sins and Luke ix. 51.

2.7 This agrees once remitted come back again. But it is with what is said John x. 41, 42. For the spiritual meaning which has here ruled healed, St. Mark has taught. 3.] This the form of the parable. He who falls froin was a question of dispute between the rival a state of grace falls into a state of con Rabbinical schools of Hillel and Shammai ; demnation, and is overwhelmed with all the former asserting the right of arbitrary that debt, not of this or that actual sin divorce, from Deut. xxiv. 1, the other deformerly remitted, but of a whole state of nying it except in case of adultery. It was enmity to God. Meyer well remarks, also, says De Wette, a delicate question in that the motive held up in this parable the place where our Lord now was,-in the

v. 2. c Gen. ii. 24.

Eph. v. $1.

vii. 2.

them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the bGen, i. 27: beginning made them male and female, 5 and said, “ For Eph. 1: si. this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and d they twain shall be one flesh ? 11.Cor. vi. 18:

1 Cor. vi. 16: 6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. 7 They say unto him, e Why did Moses then com- e Deut. xxiv. 1.

ch. V. 81. mand to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? 8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives : but from the beginning it h was not so. 9? And I say unto Ich. . 82.1 you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for 11. fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery :

1 Cor. vii. 10,


h render, hath not been. dominions of Herod Antipas. for the Hebrew. 5. one flesh] Stier reevery cause ;-i.e. is any charge which a marks, that the essential bond of marriage man may choose to bring against his wife consists not in unity of spirit and soul, by to justify him in divorcing her ? 4-6.] which indeed the marriage state shoulă On these verses we may remark, (1) that ever be hallowed and sweetened, but withour Lord refers to the Mosaic account of out which it still exists in all its binding the Creation as the historical fact of the power :- the wedded pair are ONE FLESH, first creation of man; and grounds his i. e. ONE MAN within the limits of their argument on the literal expressions of that united life in the flesh, for this world : benarrative. (2) That He cites both from yond this limit, the marriage is broken by the first and second chapters of Genesis, the death of the flesh. And herein alone and in iminediate connexion : thus shewing lies the justification of a second marriage, them to be consecutive parts of a continuous which in no way breaks off the unity of narrative,- which, from their different dic. love in spirit with the former partner, now tion, and apparent repetition, they have deceased. 7-9.) In this second ques. sometimes been supposed not to be. (3) tion, the Pharisees imagine that they have That he quotes as spoken by the Creator overthrown our Lord's decision by a perthe words in Gen. ij. 24, which were actu. mission of the law, which they call a coinally said by Adam ; they must therefore be mand (compare ver. 7 with ver. 8). But understood as said in prophecy, by divine He answers them that this was done by inspiration, which indeed the terms made Moses on account of their hardness and use of in them would require, since the re- sinfulness, as a lesser of evils, and belonged lations alluded to by those terms did not to that dispensation which entered, Rom. yet exist. As Augustine says, “God said v. 20; was added because of transgresby man that which man foretold.' (4) sions, Gal. iii. 19. This He expresses by That the force of the argument consists the your and you, as opposed to the general in the prerious unity of male and female, terms used before. Only that fornication, not indeed organically, but by implica. which itself breaks marriage, can be a tion, in Adam. Thus it is said in Gen. ground for dissolving it. The question, i. 27, He made them (man, as a race) whether demonstrated approaches to formale (not a male) and feinale (not, man nication, short of the act itself, are to be and woman): but then the male and female regarded as having the same power, must were implicitly shut up in one; and there be dealt with cautiously, but at the same fore after the creation of woman from man, time with full remembrance that our Lord when one man and one woman were united does not confine the guilt of such sins to in marriage they should be one flesh, be. the outward act only : see ch. v. 28. St. cause woman was taken out of man. The Mark gives this last verse (9) as spoken to answer then is, that abstractedly, from the the disciples in the house; and his minute nature of marriage, it is indissoluble. The accuracy in such matters of detail is well words they twain are in the Septuagint known. This enactment by our Lord is a and the Samaritan Pentateuch, but not in formal repetition of what He had said be

g 1 Cor. vii. 2,

7, 9, 17.

4: ix. 5, 15.

and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. 10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not i good to marry. 11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given. 12 For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb:

and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of ht. Cor: VII.82, men : and there be eunuchs, which k have made themselves

eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.

13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them. 14 But Jesus said, Suffer 1 little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for i of such is the kingdom of heaven. 15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence.

16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, m [Good] i render, expedient.

k render, made. 1 render, the little children : see Mark x. 14, where the words in the original are the same.

m omit. See in St. Mark and St. Luke.

ich. xviii. 3.

fore in the Sermon on the Mount, ch. v. the latter, figuratively only. It is to be 32. Some expositors (principally modern) observed that our Lord does not here utter have fallen into the mistake of supposing a word from which any superiority can be that the dictum applies to the marry- attributed to the state of celibacy : the iming a woman divorced on account of for- perative in the last clause being not a comnication. But the full English way of ren- mand but a permission, as in Rev. xxii. 17. dering the sentence, would be, a woman His estimate for us of the expediency of thus divorced, viz. not on account of for- celibacy, as a general question, is to be nication. 10.7 the case, not the cause gathered from the parable of the talents, of divorce just mentioned; nor, the condi- where He visits with severe blame the burytion of the man with bis wife: but the ing of the talent for its safer custody. The account to be given, the original ground remark is Neander's, and the more valuable, and principle,' of the relationship of man as he himself lived and died unmarried. and wife. The disciples apprehend that 13-15.] THE BRINGING OF CHILDREN the trials and temptations of marriage TO JESUS. Mark x. 13–16. Luke xviii. would prove sources of sin and misery. 15–17. After the long divergence of ch. This question and its answer are peculiar ix. 51-xviii. 14, Luke here again falls to Matthew. 11, 12.] this saying, into the synoptic narrative. This incident viz. of yours. The for in ver. 12 shews is more fully related in Mark, where see that the sense is carried on. Our notes. Our Evangelist has that he Lord mentions the three exceptions, the to should put his hands on them, and pray whom it is given not to marry. 1. Those (see Gen. xlviii. 14: Acts vi. 6), where the who from natural incapacity, or if not that, other two have only “that He should touch inaptitude, have no tendencies towards them. The connexion in which it stands marriage: 2. Those who by actual physical here and in Mark seems to be natural, im. deprivation, or compulsion from men, are mediately after the discourse on marriage. prevented from marrying: 3. Those who Some further remarks of our Lord, possibly in order to do the work of God more effec on the fruit of marriage, may have given tually (as e. g. St. Paul), abstain from mar rise to the circumstance. riage, see 1 Cor. vii. 26. The eunuchs and 16-30.) ANSWER TO THE ENQUIRY OF made eunuchs in the two first cases are to A RICH YOUNG MAN, AND DISCOURSE be taken both literally and figuratively: in THEREUPON. Mark x. 17-31. Luke xviii.

Deut. v. 17.

m Lev. xix. 18.

ch. xxii. 39.
Rom. xiii. 9.
Gal. v. 14.
James ii. S.

D ch, vi. 20. Luke xii. 33 : xvi. 9. Acts

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85. i Tim. vi. 18, 19.

1 Cor. i. 26.

Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17 And he said unto him, n Why callest thou me good ? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. 18 He saith unto him, Which ? Jesus said, “Thou shalt do no k Exod. 11. 13. murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, 19 'Honour thy I ch. xv. 4. father and thy mother : and, m Thou shalt love thy neigh- m Lex nimis. bour as thyself. 20 The young man saith unto him, Allam.. these things have I kept [° from my youth up] : what lack I yet? 21 Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, " and thou shalt have treasure in heaven : and come and lovesti, follow me. 22 But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions. 23 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall P hardly enter into the king- och vill. dom of heaven. 24 And again I say unto you, It is easier ioTim. vi. O, for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a

read, “Why askest thou me concerning good? There is one good; but ..." see note.

o omit. See in St. Mark and St. Luke. P render, with difficulty. 18–30. 16.7 From Luke ver. 18 we probably the tenth commandment. 19.7 learn that he was a ruler : from Mark ver. The addition of Thou shalt love fc. is 17, that he ran to our Lord. The spirit peculiar to Matthew. 20.] We may in which he came,- which does not how. remark that this young man, though selfever appear here so plainly as in the other righteous, was no hypocrite, no Pharisee : gospels, from the omission of good,and he spoke earnestly, and really strove to the form of our Lord's answer,– seems to keep, as he really believed he had kept, all have been that of excessive admiration for God's commandments. Accordingly St. Jesus as a man of eminent virtue, and of Mark adds, that Jesus looking upon him desire to know from Him by what work loved him : in spite of his error there was of exceeding merit he might win eternal a nobleness and openness about him, conlife. This spirit He reproves, by replying trasted with the hypocritical bearing of that there is but One Good, and that the the Pharisees and Scribes. 21, 22.] walking by His grace in the way of holi- Our Lord takes him on his own shewing. ness is the path to life. On the question As St. Mark and St. Luke add, “One thing and answer, as they stand in the received is wanting to thee.Supposing thy statetext,- and on their doctrinal bearing, see ment true, this topstone has yet to be notes to Mark. This passage furnishes one laid on the fabric. But then it is to be of the most instructive and palpable cases noticed, that part of that one thing is of the smoothing down of apparent dis- Come and follow me (taking up thy cross, crepancies by correcting the Gospels out of Mark). Stier remarks, that this was a one another and thus reducing them to test of his observance of the first comconformity. 18.] De Wette observes mandment of the first table: of breakwell, that our Lord gives this enumeration ing which he is by the result convicted. of the commandments to bring out the

24.] Lightfoot brings instances self-righteous spirit of the young man, from the Talmud of similar proverbial exwhich He before saw. He only mentions pressions regarding an elephant : we have those of the second table, having in ver. a case in ch. xxiii. 24, of a camel being 17, in His declaration respecting good," put for any thing very large : and we must included those of the first. Mark has the remember that the object here was to set addition of Defraud not,representing forth the greatest human impossibility,

14. Jer. xxxii. 17. Luke i. 37.

Luke v. 11.

r Luke xxii.

28, 29, 30.
1 Cor. vi. 2,
3. Rev. ii.


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rich man to enter into the kingdom of 4 God. 25 When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying,

Who then can be saved ? 26 But Jesus beheld them, and p Gen. xviii. said unto them, With men this is impossible ; but P with

37. God all things are possible. 27 Then answered Peter and 9 ch. iv. 20. said unto him, Behold, I we have forsaken all, and followed

thee; what shall we have therefore ? 28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, 'ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 29 And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, [99 or wife,] or children, or lands,

for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall s ch. 11.16: inherit everlasting life. 30 s But many that are first shall Luke žili. so. be last; and the last shall be first. XX. 1 For the king

q one ancient MS. reads heaven, and perhaps, as God stands in the parallel places, Mark x. 25, Luke xvii. 25, this may be the true reading.

99 omitted in the oldest MSS. Origen expressly says that wife is not included. and to magnify divine grace, which could does not hide from them their reward : accomplish even that. 25.] Who, not but tells them prophetically, that in the What rich man, which would have been a new world, the accomplishment of that far shallower and narrower enquiry, but a regeneration which He came to bring in general question-what man? Besides (see Acts iii. 21 : Rev. xxi. 5 : Matt. xxvi. the usual reason given for this question, 29), when He should sit on His throne of

since all are striving to be rich,' we glory, then they also should sit (see in my must remember that the disciples yet Greek Test, on the peculiar force of the two looked for a temporal Kingdom, and there. different forms of the verb sit, as applied fore would naturally be dismayed at hear to our Lord, sitting on His throne as His ing that it was so difficult for any rich own act, and to the Apostles, as being proman to enter it. 26. beheld them moted to, and taking their seats on, their Probably to give force to and impress what thrones, as the will of another) on twelve was about to be said, especially as it was thrones judging (see ref. 1 Cor.) the twelve a saying reaching into the spiritual doc- tribes of Israel (see Rev. xx. 4; xxi. 12, trines of the Gospel, which they could not 14:-- one throne, Judas's, another took, yet apprehend. this, salvation in Acts i. 20). At the same time he informs general, and even of those least likely to them, ver. 29, that this reward should not be saved with, in both cases, means, 'in in its most blessed particulars be theirs the estimation of. 27.] The disciples, alone, but that of every one who should or rather Peter speaking for them, recur deny himself for Him (see 2 Tim. iv. 8): to the "shalt have treasure in heavenand (ver. 30) cautions them, referring said to the young man, and enquire what perhaps especially to Judas, but with a their reward shall be, who have done view to all, as appears by the following all that was required of them. He does parable, that many first should be last, and not ask respecting salvation, but some last first. On ver. 29, Stier remarks pre-eminent reward, as is manifest by the that the family relations are mentioned by answer. The 'all' which the Apostles bad St. Matthew in the order in which they left, was not in every case contemptible. would be left. On the other points requiring The sons of Zebedee had hired servants notice, see note on Mark x. 29, 30. (Mark i. 20), and Levi (Matthew ?) could CHAP. XX. 1-16.] PARABLE OF TAE inake a great feast in his house. But LABOURERS IN THE VINEYARD. Peculiar whatever it was, it was their all.

to Matthew. In interpreting this difficult 28-30.] We may admire the simple truth. Parable, we must first carefully observe fulness of this answer of our Lord. He its occasion and connexion. It is bound

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