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body. 27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; 28 for - this is my xxiv. 8. Lev.
n see Exod.
living things, in this largest sense, to live, into Time, and enacted the great acts of is Christ. And all our nourishment and Redemption on this our world, -and shewn means of upholding are Christ. In this himself to us as living and speaking Man, sense his Body is the Life of the world an object of our personal love and affecThus the fitness of the symbol for the tionate remembrance :--but the other and thing now to be signified is shewn, not higher parts of the Sacrament have regard merely by analogy, but by the deep veri. to the results of those same acts of Re. ties of Redemption. And this general and demption, as they are eternized in the lower sense, underlying, as it does, all the counsels of the Father,- as the Lamb is spiritual and higher senses in John vi., slain from the foundation of the world brings us to the symbolic meaning, which (Rev. xiii. 8).
27. gave it] He the Lord now first and expressly attaches gave, not to each, but once for all : in reto this sacramental bread. Rising markable coincidence with Luke xxii. 17. into the higher region of spiritual things, take this and divide it amongst yourselves.
-in and by the same Body of the Lord, This was after the meal was ended : likestanding before the Father in accepted wise also the cup after supper. (Luke righteousness, is all spiritual being upheld, and 1 Cor.) As remarked above, it is quite but by the inward and spiritual process uncertain whether our Lord followed mi. of feeding upon Him by faith : of making nutely the Jewish practices, and we canthat Body our own, causing it to pass not therefore say whether the cup was one into and nourish our souls, even as the of wine and water mixed. It hardly folsubstance of the bread passes into and lows from the expression of ver. 29, of this nourishes our bodies. Of this feeding fruit of the vine, that it was of unmixed upon Christ in the spirit by faith, is the wine. The word likewise (in Luke and sacramental bread the symbol to us. When 1 Cor.) contains our details of taking and the faithful in the Lord's Supper press giving thanks in it. Drink ye all of with their teeth that sustenance, which is, it] Peculiar to Matthew, preserved howeven to the animal life of their bodies, ever in substance by Mark's “and they all the Body of Christ, whereby alone all drank of it.” The all is remarkable, espeanimated being is upheld,- they feed in cially with reference to the practice of the their souls on that Body of righteousness Church of Rome, which forbids the cup to and acceptance, by partaking of which the laity. Calvin remarks: “ Why did He alone the body and soul are nourished simply command them to eat the bread, unto everlasting life. And as, in the more while of the cup He commanded them all general and natural sense, all that nou to drink? It is as if He had intended to rishes the body is the Body of Christ anticipate the craft of Satan.” It is on given for all, -50 to them, in the inner all accounts probable, and this command spiritual sense, is the sacramental bread confirms the probability, that Judas was symbolic of that Body given for them,- present, and partook of both parts of this their standing in which, in the adoption first communion. The expressions are such of sons, is witnessed by the sending abroad throughout as to lead us to suppose that of the Spirit in their hearts. This last the same persons, the Twelve, were present. leads us to the important addition in Luke On the circumstance mentioned John xiii. and 1 Cor. (but omitted here and in Mark) 30, which has mainly contributed to the which is (being given, Luke,-omitted in í other opinion, see note there. 28. for Cor.) for you,- this do in remembrance of this is my blood of the [new] testament] me. On these words we may remark (1) So St. Mark also, omitting for and new. that the participle in the original is present; In Luke and 1 Cor. there is an important and, rendered with reference to the time verbal difference. This cup is the new when it was spoken, would be which is testament in my blood. But if we conbeing given. The Passion had already sider the matter closely, the real difference begun; in fact the whole life on earth is but trifling, if any, Let us recur to the was this giving and breaking, consum paschal rite. The lamb (Christ our passmated by his death: (2) that the com over) being killed, the blood (the blood of memorative part of the rite here enjoined the covenant (testament], Exod. xxiv. strictly depends upon the symbolic mean- 8) is sprinkled on the doorposts, and is ing, and that, for its fitness, upon the a sign to the destroying angel to spare literal meaning. The commemoration is the house. The blood of the covenant is of Him, in so far as He has come down the blood of the lamb. So also in the
Pch. xx. 28.
Rom. v. 15.
o Jer. 1.. 31. blood of the [r new] testament, which is 8 shed P for many Heb. ix: 23for the remission of sins. 29 But I say unto you, I will
not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's king
r omitted in many ancient authorities.
8 or, being shed.
new covenant. The blood of the Lamb ness of sins itself, but the refreshing and of God, slain for us, being not only as in confirming assurance of that state of for. the former case, sprinkled on, but actually giveness is conveyed. The disciples (with partaken spiritually and assimilated by one exception) were clean before the instithe faithful soul, is the blood of the new tution : John xiii. 10, 11. St. Paul, in covenant; and the sacramental cup, is, 1 Cor. xi. 25, repeats the Do this as oft as signifies, sets forth (1 Cor. xi. 26), this ye drink it in remembrance of Me. On covenant in His blood, i. e. consisting in a the words as oft as ye drink it, see note participation in His blood. With this ex- there. In concluding this note, I will planation let us recur to the words in our observe that it is not the office of a Comtext. First it will be observed that there mentator to enter the arena of controversy is not here that absolute assertion which respecting transubstantiation, further than “this is My body” conveyed. It is not by his interpretation his opinions are made “ this is my blood” absolutely. Wine, in apparent. It will be seen how entirely opgeneral, does not represent by itself the posed to such a dogma is the view above effects (on the creation) of the blood of given of the Sacrament. Once introduce Christ; it, like every other nourishinent of it, and it utterly destroys both the verity of the body, is nourishment to us by and in Christ's Body, and the sacramental nature Him, forasmuch as in Him all things con. of the ordinance. That it has done so, is sist: but there is no peculiar propriety proved (if further need be) by the mutilawhereby it is to us his Blood alone. But tion of the Sacrament, and disobedience to it is made so by a covenant office which it the divine command, in the Church of holds in his own declaration. Without Rome. See further notices of this in notes shedding of blood, was no remission of sins on 1 Cor. x. 16, and on John vi. under the old covenant : and blood was, 29.] This declaration I believe to be disthroughout, the covenant sign of forgive tinct from that in Luke xxii. 18. That ness and acceptance. Now all this blood was spoken over the first cup-this over of sacrifice finds its true reality and fulfil. one of the following. In addition to what ment in the blood of Christ, shed for the has been said on Luke, we may observe, remission of sing. This is the very pro- (1) that our Lord still calls the sacramental mise of the new covenant, see Heb. viii. cup the fruit of the vine, although by Him8—13, as distinguished from the old : the self pronounced to be His Blood : (2) that remission of sins, once for all,—whereas these words carry on the meaning and the old had continual offerings, which continuance of this eucharistic ordinance, could not do this, Heb. x. 3, 4. And of even into the new heavens and new earth. this remission, the result of the outpouring As Thiersch excellently says, “ The Lord's of the blood of Christ,-first and most Supper points not only to the past, but to generally in bringing all creation into re- the future also. It has not only a commeconciliation with the Father (see Col. i. morative, but also a prophetic meaning. In 20),– secondly and individually, in the it we have not only to shew forth the Lord's application by faith of that blood to the death, until He come, but we have also to believing soul,- do the faithful in the think of the time when He shall come to Lord's Supper partake. which is [be- celebrate his holy Supper with his own, ing) shed for many (for you, Luke)] "On new, in his Kingdom of Glory. Every the present participle, see above. The celebration of the Lord's Supper is a fore. situation of the words in Luke is remark. taste and prophetic anticipation of the great able ; for the cup is the subject of the Marriage Supper which is prepared for the sentence, and the new testament the pre- Church at the second appearing of Christ. dicate. See note there. many] See This import of the Sacrament is declared note, ch. xx. 28. Compare also Heb. ix. 28. in the words of the Lord, I will not drink
for the remission of sins) Peculiar henceforth, &c. These words ought never to Matthew : see above. The connexion is to be onnitted in any liturgical form of adnot “ Drink it ... for the remission of ministering the Communion.” sins.” In the Sacrament, not the forgive
dom. 30 And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives. 31 Then saith Jesus unto them, 9 All ye shall be offended because of me this night : 9 John . 82. for it is written, 'I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep r Zecu. xili. 7. of the flock shall be scattered abroad. 32 But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. 33 Peter s ch. xxviii. 7: answered and said unto him, Though all [t men] shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended. 34 Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
t not expressed in the original : it may mean, All [the disciples). 30—35.) DECLARATION THAT ALL the little ones.” As this could not be SHOULD FORSAKE HIM. CONFIDENCE OF cited in any intelligible connexion with PETER. Mark xiv. 26–31. See Luke present circumstances, our Lord gives the xxii. 31–38: John xii. 36-38. Here, announcement of its fulfilment, in a proaccurately speaking perhaps between sing. mise to precede them (a pastoral office, see ing the hymn and going out, come in the John x. 4) into Galilee, whither they should discourses and prayer of our Lord in naturally return after the feast was over : John xiv. xv. xvi. xvii., spoken (see see ch. xxviii. 7, 10, 16. 33.] Nothing note on John xiv. 31) without change can bear a greater impress of exactitude of place in the supper-chamber.
than this reply. Peter had been before The hymn was in all probability the warned (see note on Luke, vv. 31-34); last part of that which the Jews called and still remaining in the same spirit of the Hallel, or great Hallel, which con. self-confident attachment, now that he is sisted of Psalms cxv.-cxviii.; the for- included among the all, not specially mer part (Psalms cxiii. cxiv.) having addressed, -breaks out into this asseverabeen sung during the meal. It is un- tion, which carries completely with it the likely that this took place after the testimony that it was not the first. Men do solemn prayer in John xvii. 30. went not bring themselves out so strongly, unless out) St. Luke (ver. 39) adds “as he was their fidelity has been previously attainted. wont”-namely, every evening since his
34.] The very words in their order return to Jerusalem. 31.) All (em- are, I doubt not, reported by St. Mark,phatic) ye seems to be used as distinguish “ This day, even in this night, before the ing those present from the one, who had cock crow tuice, thou shalt deny me gone out. offended] The word is thrice.” The contrast to Peter's boast, and here used in a pregnant meaning, including the climax, is in these words the strongest ; what followed, -desertion, and, in one case, and the inference also comes out most denial, for it is written] This is a clearly, that they likewise were not now very important citation, and has been said for the first time. The first cockmuch misunderstood; how much, may ap- crowing is at midnight : but inasmuch as pear from Grotius's remark, that Zecha few hear it,—when the word is used generiah's words are not directly alluded to: rally, we mean the second crowing, early nay, that in them rather is the saying used in the morning, before dawn. If this view of some bad shepherd. But, on the con- be taken, the cock-crowing and double cocktrary, if we examine Zech. xi. xii. xiii., crowing amount to the same-only the we must I think come to the conclusion latter is the more precise expression. It that the shepherd spoken of xi. 7–14, is most likely that Peter understood this who is rejected and sold, who is said to expression as only a mark of time, and have been pierced (xii. 10), is also spoken therefore received it, as when it was of in ch. xii. 7. Stier has gone at length spoken before, as merely an expression of into the meaning of the whole prophecy, distrust on the Lord's part; it was this and especially that of the word “my fellow, solemn and circumstantial repetition of it and shewn that the reference can be to no which afterwards struck upon his mind, other than the Messiah. 32.] In this when the sign itself was literally fulfilled. announcement our Lord seems to have in
A question has been raised whether mind the remainder of the verse in Zecha. cocks were usually kept or even allowed riah : “and I will turn mine hand upon in Jerusalem. No such bird is mentioned
35 Peter said unto him, Though I u should die with thee,
u render, must.
in the 0. T., and the Mischna states that of the resigned will, continually broken in the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the upon by the inward giving way of human priests every where, kept no fowls, because feebleness, and limited power of endurance. they scratched up unclean worms. But But as in us, so in the Lord, these seasons the Talmud is here not consistent with of dread and conflict stir not the ruling itself: and Lightfoot brings forward a will, alter not the firm resolve. This is story which proves it. And there might most manifest in His first prayer-if it be be many kept by the resident Romans, possible-'if consistent with that work over whom the Jews had no power.
which I have covenanted to do.' Here is We must not overlook the spiritual para the reserve of the will to suffer- it is bolic import of this warning. Peter stands never stirred (see below). The conflict here as a representative of all disciples who however of the Lord differs from ours in deny or forget Christ-and the watchful this,—that in us, the ruling will itself is bird that cries in the night is that warning but a phase of our human will, and may voice which speaketh once, yea twice,' to be and is often carried away by the excess call them to repentance: see Rom. xiii. of depression and suffering; whereas in 11, 12. 35.] This though I must again Him it was the divine Personality in appears to have the precision of a repeated which the higher Will of the covenant asseveration. St. Mark has the stronger ex- purpose was eternally fixed,-struggling pression “he spake the more vehemently," with the flesh now overwhelmed with an which even more clearly indicates that the horrible dread, and striving to escape die with thee was not now first said. The away (see the whole of Ps. lv.). Besides rest said it, but not so earnestly perhaps; that, by that uplifting into a superhuman -at all events, Peter's confidence cast circle of Knowledge, with which the intheirs into the shade.
dwelling of the Godhead endowed His 36–46.] OUR LORD'S AGONY AT humanity, His flesh, with all its capacities GETHSEMĀNE. Mark xiv. 32–42. Luke and apprehensions, was brought at once xxii. 39–46. John xviii. 1. The account into immediate and simultaneous contact of the temptation, and of the agony in with every circumstance of horror and Gethsemane is peculiar to the three first pain that awaited Him (John xviii. 4), Evangelists. But it does not therefore which is never the case with us. Not follow that there is, in their narratives, only are the objects of dread gradually any inconsistency with St. John's setting unveiled to our minds, but hope is ever forth of the Person of Christ. For it suggesting that things may not be so bad must be remembered, that, as we find in as our fears represent them. Then we their accounts frequent manifestations of must not forget, that as the flesh gave the divine nature, and indications of future way under dread of suffering, so the human glory, about, and during this contlict,- soul was troubled with all the attendant so in St. John's account, which brings out circumstances of that suffering—betrayal, more the divine side of our Lord's working desertion, shame (see Ps. lv. again, vv. and speaking, we find frequent allusions to 12–14, 20, 21; xxxviii. 11, 12, lxxxviii. his human weakness and distress of spirit. al.). Nor again must we pass over the For examples of the first, see vv. 13, 24, 29, last and deepest mystery of the Passion32, 53, and the parallels in Mark and Luke; the consideration, that upon the holy and and Luke xxii. 30, 32, 37,43; of the latter, innocent Lamb of God rested the burden John xii. 27; xiii. 21 ; xiv. 30; xvi. 32. of all human sin-that to Him, death, as
The right understanding of the the punishment of sin, bore a dark and whole important narration must be ac- dreadful meaning, inconceivable by any of quired by bearing in mind the reality of us, whose inner will is tainted by the lore the manhood of our Lord, in all its abase- of sin. See on this part of the Redeemer's ment and weakness :—by following out in agony, Ps. xl. 12; xxxviii. 1-10. See Him the analogy which pervades the also as a comment on the whole, Heb. v. characteristics of human suffering-the 7-10, and notes there. The three strength of the resolved spirit, and calm accounts do not differ in any important
Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. 37 And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be t ch. iv. 21. sorrowful and very heavy. 38 Then saith he unto them, u My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death : tarry u John xii. 27. ye here, and watch with me. 39 And he went a little
particulars. St. Luke merely gives a general literally, as generally interpreted, utterly summary of the Lord's prayers and his say. prostrate with grief. 38.] Our Lord's ings to the disciples, but inserts (see below) whole inmost life must have been one of two details not found in the others. St. continued trouble of spirit-He was a Mark's account and St. Matthew's are very man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief nearly related, and have evidently sprung - but there was an extremity of anguish from the same source. 36.] Št. Mark now, reaching even to the utmost limit of alone, besides our account, mentions the endurance, so that it seemed that more name of the place-St. Luke merely calls would be death itself. The expression is it “ the place,” in allusion to “as he was said to be proverbial (see Jonah iv. 9): wont” before. St. John informs us that it but we must remember that though with was a garden. The name signifies 'an oil us men, who see from below, proverbs are press. It was at the foot of the Mount merely bold guesses at truth,—with Him, of Olives, in the valley of the Kedron, the who sees from above, they are the truth other side of the brook from the city itself, in its very purest form. So that (John xviii. 1). while I go and pray] although when used by a man, a proverSuch is the name which our Lord gives bial expression is not to be pressed to to that which was coming upon Him, in literal exactitude,—when used by our speaking to the Eight who were not to Lord, it is, just because it is a proverb, to witness it. All conflict of the holy soul is be searched into and dwelt on all the prayer: all its struggles are continued more. The expression my soul, in communion with God. In Gen. xxii. 5, this sense, spoken by our Lord, is only when Abraham's faith was to be put to so found besides in John xii. 27. It is the sore a trial, he says, “I and the lad will human soul, the seat of the affections and go yonder and worship. Our Lord (almost passions, which is troubled with the anon the same spot) unites in Himself, as the guish of the body; and it is distinguished priest and victim, as Stier strikingly re- from the spirit, the higher spiritual being. marks, Abraham's Faith and Isaac's Pa- Our Lord's soul was crushed down even to tience. yonder- probably some spot death by the weight of that anguish which deeper in the garden's shade. At this lay upon Him- and that literally—so that time the gorge of the Kedron would be He (as regards his humanity) would have partly in the moonlight, partly shaded by died, had not strength (bodily strength, the rocks and buildings of the opposite upholding his human frame) been minisside. It may have been from the moon tered from on high by an angel (see note light into the shade that our Lord retired on Luke xxii. 43). watch with me] to pray. 37.] These three-Peter, not pray with me, for in that work the the foremost in attachment, and profession Mediator must be alone ; but (see above) of it-the two sons of Zebedee, who were watch with Me-just (if we may compare to drink of the cup that He drank of – He our weakness with His) as we derive comtakes with Him, not only nor principally fort in the midst of a terrible storm, from as witnesses of his trial—this indeed, in knowing that some are awake and with us, the full sense, they were not--but as a even though their presence is no real safeconsolation to Him in that dreadful hour guard. 39.) went a little farther - to watch with Him. In this too they (Matt., Mark): was withdrawn from failed-yet from his returning to them them about a stone's cast, Luke, who in between his times of prayer, it is manifest this description is the more precise. The that, in the abasement of his humanity, verb, in the original, implies something He regarded them as some comfort to him. more than mere removal from them“In great trials we love solitude, but to something of the reluctance of parting. have friends near.” Bengel. he began
The distance would be very small, --not merely idiomatic here-began, as He not above forty or fifty yards. Hence had never done before. to be sorrow. the disciples might well catch the leadful] sore amazed, Mark. very heavy] ing words of our Lord's prayers, before