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Heb. v. 7. w John xii. 27.10
Heb.v.7i ,, farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, "O my x ch. II. 22. Father, if it be possible, * let this cup pass from me: y John v. son nevertheless Y not as I will, but as thou wilt. 40 And he Phil. cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and
saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one 2 Eph. vi. 18. hour? 41 z Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temp
vi. 38. Rom. XV. 3. Phil. ii. 8.
drowsiness overpowered them. Luke has most petty and unworthy appreciation of however only kneeled down, which is the purpose of Scripture narrative. not so full as our occount. prayed] pass from me] as we should say of a Stier finely remarks: "This was in truth threatening cloud, 'It has gone over.' a different prayer from that which went But what is the cup or hour, of which our before, which John has recorded. But Lord bere prays that it may pass by ? still in the same spirit, uttered by the Certainly, not the mere present feebleness same Son of God and Redeemer of men. and prostration of the bodily frame : not The glorifying (John xvii. 1) begins with any mere section of his sufferings-but suffering, as the previous words, the hour the whole—the betrayal, the trial, the is come, might lead us to expect. The mocking, the scourging, the cross, the • power over all flesh' shews itself first as grave, and all besides which our thoughts power of the conflicting and victorious cannot reach. Of this all, His soul, in spirit over his own flesh, by virtue of humble subjection to the higher Will, which He is one of us. St. Mark which was absolutely united and harmoexpresses the substance of the prayer, and nious with the Will of the Father, prays interprets cup by hour. St. Luke's report that if possible it may pass over. “And differs only in verbal expression from St. this prayer was heard-see Heb. v. 7Matthew's. In the address, we have here “in that he feared”-on account of His and in Luke Father-in Mark Abba, pious resignation to the Father's will, or Father. In all, and in the prayer itself, on the ground of it, so that it prevailedthere is the deepest feeling and apprehen. He was strengthened from Heaven. He sion in the Redeemer's soul of his Son. did indeed drink the cup to the dregsship and the unity of the Father--the but He was enabled to do it, and this most entire and holy submission to His strengthening was the answer to his prayer. Will. We must not for a moment think
nevertheless not as I will ....) of the Father's wrath abiding on Him The Monothelite heresy, which held but as the cause of his suffering. Here is one will in the Lord Jesus, is here plainly no fear of wrath,—but, in the depth of convicted of error. The distinction is His human anguish, the very tenderness clear, and marked by our Lord Himself. of filial love.
In his human soul, He willed to be freed The variation in Mark and Luke in the from the dreadful things before Him-but substance of the prayer, though slight, is this human will was overruled by the worthy of remark. if it be possible, inner and divine purpose—the will at -all things are possible with thee,-if unity with the Father's will. thou be willing. All these three find their 40.] St. Mark agrees, except in relating the union in one and the same inward feeling. beginning of the address in the singularThat in the text expresses, “If, within the -no doubt accurately-for it was Peter limits of thy holy will, this may be ;'--that (“Simon, who was no Peter on this occain Mark, All things are (absolutely) pos- sion,” Stier), who had pledged himself to sible to Thee-Thou canst therefore-but go with him to prison and death. not what I will, but what thou wilt :' - The question is literally could ye thus not that in Luke, . If it be thy will to re- watch...p-it implies their utter inability, move, &c. (Thou canst) : but not my will, as shewn by their present state of slumber, but thine be done. The very words used Are ye so entirely unable, &c. one by our Lord, the Holy Spirit has not seen hour need not imply that our Lord had fit to give us; shewing us, even in this been absent a whole hour :-if it is to be solemn instance, the comparative indif- taken in any close meaning, it would be ference of the letter, when we have the that the whole trial would last about that inner spirit. That our Lord should have time. But most likely it is in allusion uttered all three forins of the prayer, is to the time of our Lord's trial, so often not for a moment to be thought of; and called by that name. 41.) St. Luke gives such a view could only spring out of the this command at the beginning and end
tation : the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 42 He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this [' cup] may not pass away [w from me], except I drink it, thy will be done. 43 And he came and found them asleep again : for their eyes were heavy. 44 And he left them, and went away again, and prayed [the third time], saying the same words. 45 Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46 Rise, let us be going : behold, he is at hand that doth betray me.
X omitted by ancient authorities. of the whole; but his account is manifestly what precise time the angel appeared to only a compendium, and not to be pressed Him is uncertain : I should be inclined to chronologically. The command has respect think, after the first prayer, before He to the immediate trial which was about to came to His disciples. The words are try them, and (for watch is a word of not exactly the same: “the Lord knew habit, not merely, as “arise" Eph. v. 15, that the Father always heard Him (John or “awake to righteousness" 1 Cor. xv. xi. 42); and therefore He understands the 34, ope of immediate import) also to the continuance of His trial as the answer to general duty of all disciples in all time. His last words, as Thou wilt.” Stier.
enter into temptation is not to come Here therefore the prayer is If it be not into temptation merely, to be tempted : possible .... Thy will be done. It is this lies not in our own power to avoid, spoken in the fulness of self-resignation. and its happening is rather joy than sor.
43.] St. Mark adds, and it is a note row to us--see James i. 2, where the word of accuracy, “neither wist they what to an. is “fall into"-but it implies an entering swer him.” 44.] the same, viz. as the last. into temptation with the will, and enter. This third prayer is merely indicated in taining of the temptation. Compare “fall Mark, by “he cometh the third time," on into temptation" used in this sense, 1 Tim. our Lord's return. 45, 46.] The clause vi. 9. the spirit ...] I cannot doubt Sleep on now, &c., has been variously unthat this is said by our Lord in its most gene derstood. To take it interrogatively (“are ral meaning, and that He himself is included ye sleeping” fc. ?), does not improve the in it. At that moment He was giving as sense, and makes an unnatural break in the high and pre-eminent an example of its sentence, which proceeds indicatively aftertruth, as the disciples were affording a low wards. It seems to me that there can be but and ignoble one. He, in the willingness two ways of interpreting it-and both with of the spirit-yielding Himself to the an imperative construction. (1) Either it Father's will to suffer and die, but weighed was said bona fide,—“Since ye are not able down by the weakness of the flesh: they, to watch with Me, now ye may sleep onhaving professed, and really having, a will. for my hour is come, and I am about to be ing spirit to suffer with Him, but, even in taken from you'- which sense however is the one hour's watching, overcome by the precluded by the “Rise, let us be going" burden of drowsiness. Observe it is here below : or (2) it was said with an underspirit, not soul; and compare ver. 38 and standing of if you can,' as Bengel; if you note. To enter further into the depths of hear not Me arousing you, there will this assertion of our Lord would carry us speedily come others who will arouse you. beyond the limits of annotation : but see “Meanwhile, sleep, if ye will.” behold, Stier's remarks, vi. 237—242. 42.] the hour is at hand] “it is enough, the hour St. Mark merely says of this second prayer, is come,” Mark. “It is enough'-enough of “he ... spake the same words.” St. Luke reproof to them for drowsiness-enough of gives it as “prayed more earnestly”'- exhortations to watch and pray-that was and relates in addition, that His sweat was now coming which would cut all this short. like the fall of drops of blood on the This first behold is hardly to be taken ground: see notes on Luke xxii. 44. At literally of the appearance of Judas and
b 2 Sam.xx. 0. c Px. xli. 9 : lv
a Acts i. 10. 47 And a while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve,
came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and elders of the people. 48 Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast.
49 And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; • p. xli. O: Iv. b and kissed him. 50 And Jesus said unto him, o y Friend,
y or, Comrade. It is the same word as in ch. xi. 16; xx. 13; xxii. 12: but not the same as in John xi. 11 ; xv. 13, 14, 15. his band; it merely announces the ap. sisting of (1) a detachment of the Roman proach of the hour, of which the Lord cohort which was quartered in the tower had so often spoken : but at the utterance of Antonia during the feast in case of an of the second, it seems that they were in uproar, called the band, John vv. 3, 12. sight, and that may be taken literally. (2) the servants of the council, the same This expression, into the hands of sinners, as the captains of the temple, Luke ver. should be noticed, as an echo of the 52. (3) Servants and others deputed from Redeemer's anguish-it was the contact the high priest to assist, see our ver. 51. with sin,- and death, the wages of sin, - (4) Possibly, if the words are to be taken which all through His trial pressed heavily exactly, (Luke ver. 52), some of the chief on His soul.
priests and elders themselves, forward in 47 –56.] BETRAYAL AND APPRENEN zeal and enmity. There is nothing imSION OF JESUS. Mark xiv. 43–52. Luke probable in this, seeing that we have these xxii. 47–53. John xviii. 2-11. St. Mark's persons mixing among the multitude and account has evidently been derived from the stirring them up to demand the crucifixion same source originally as St. Matthew's, but of Jesus afterwards. staves] any both had gained some important additions tumultuary weapons. The intention of the before they were finally committed to writ. chief priests evidently was to produce an ing. St. Luke's is, as before, an abridged impression to the effect that a seditious narrative, but abounding with new circum- plot was to be crushed, and resistance stances not related by the others. St. John's might be expected. John mentions also account is at first sight very dissimilar from lanterns and torches--to search perhaps in either; see text above cited, and notes the dark parts of the garden, most of there. It may suffice now to say, that all which would by this time be in the shade. which St. John, vv. 4 9, relates, must have 48.] gave them a sign ;- when is not happened on the first approach of the band stated. On St. Mark's addition, “and lead --and is connected with our “Rise, let us him away safely," see notes there. 49.] be going.” Some particulars also must forthwith- see above on ver. 47. The pur. have happened, which are omitted by all : pose of the kiss, supposing it to have taken viz. the rejoining of the eight apostles (not place after John vv. 4–8, (and it is surely alluded to in Luke, ver. 46, as Greswell sup- out of the question to suppose it to have poses), and the preparing them for what taken place before, contrary to the plain was about to take place. On the other meaning of John ver. 4,) has been doubted. hand, John gives a hint that something Yet I think on a review of what had haphad been passing in the garden, by his pened, it is very intelligible—not perhaps " went forth,” ver. 4. The two first Evan as some have supposed, to shew that Jesus gelists were evidently unaware of any such could be approached with safety--but at matter as that related by St. John, for they all events as the sign agreed on with the (Matt. ver. 49: Mark ver. 45) introduce Roman soldiers, who probably did not perthe Kiss by a “forthwith.” 47.) sonally know Him, and who besides would Judas is specified as “one of the Twelve," have had their orders from the city, to probably because the appellation, as con- take Him whom Judas should kiss. Thus nected with this part of his history, had the kiss would be necessary in the course become the usual one--thus we have in of their military duty, as their authorizaLuke “he that was called Judas, one of tion,-notwithstanding the previous declathe Twelve”- fuller still. To the reader, ration by Jesus of Himself.' The word in this specification is not without meaning, the original implies, kissed him eagerly,' though that meaning may not have been with ostentation, as a studied and preintended. a great multitude con- arranged sign. 50.] In Luke we have
wherefore art thou come? Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. 51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place : d for all they that take a Gen. ix. 6 the sword shall perish with the sword. 53 Thinkest thou that I cannot z now pray to my Father, and he shall z presently give me e more than twelve legions of angels ? e 2Kinkek07
2 One of these, “now,” or “presently,” should be omitted. The word is read by some authorities in the former clause, by some in the latter : but by none in both.
“ Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man agree in this account. Luke and John with a kiss ?” which sense is involved in are most exact -- the latter giving the the text also : that variation shewing per- naine of the slave,-Malchus. The haps that one of the accounts is not from aim was a deadly one, and Peter narrowly an eye-witness. Friend-see ch. xxii. escaped being one “who had committed 12 and note. It is more than doubtful murder in the insurrection.” From Luke, whether the words that follow can pro. ver. 51, we learn that our Lord said “ Sufperly be rendered as a question. More fer ye thus far” (on the meaning of which likely do they inean, “ Friend, there needs see note there), touched the ear, and healed not this shew of attachment: I know it. 52.] thy sword - not mine, nor thine errand, -do thy purpose.” But the on my side. his place = "the sheath,” command itself is suppressed. On any un- John. The sheath is the place for the derstanding of the words, it is an appeal Christian's sword_"a sword out of its to the conscience and heart of Judas, in sheath is not in its place, unless as minis. which sense (see above) it agrees with tering to the divine anger,” Bengel; sce the words spoken in Luke :-see note note on Luke xxii. 36. Our Lord does there. The fact that at this period our not say · Cast away thy sword ;' only in Lord was laid hold of and secured (by hand His willing self-sacrifice, and in that king-not yet bound) by the band, is impor- dom which is to be evolved from his work tant, as interpreting St. Luke's account of redemption, is the sword altogether out further on. 51.] The one of them ... of place. for all &c.] Peculiar to Mat. was Peter ;-John ver. 10. Why he was thew. There is no allusion, as Grotius and not mentioned, is idle to enquire: one some of the ancients thought, to the Jews supposition only must be avoided--that perishing by the Roman sword : for the there is any purpose in the omission. It very persons who were now taking Him is absurd to suppose that the mention of were Romans. The saying is generalhis name in a book current only among and the stress is on take- it was this that Christians, many years after the fact, Peter was doing—'taking up the sword' could lead to his apprehension, which did of his own will; taking that vengeance not take place at the time, although he which belongs to God, into his own hand. was recognized as the striker in the palace
shall perish with the sword is a of the High Priest, John ver. 26. The real command ; not merely a future, but an reason of the non-apprehension was that imperative future ; a repetition by the the servant was healed by the Lord. Lord in this solemn moment of Gen. ix. 6. This is the first opposition to Thy will be This should be thought of by those well. done.' St. Luke expresses it, that they saw meaning but shallow persons, who seek to what would happen--and asked, “Lord, abolish the punishment of death in Chris. shall we smite with the sword ?' Then, tian states.
John adds the words while the other (for there were but two “the cup which my Father hath given me, swords in the company) was waiting for shall I not drink it?” on which see notes the reply, the rash Peter, in the very there. 53, 54 are peculiar to Matthew. spirit of ch. xvi. 22, smote with the sword
53.7 The Majesty of our Lord, and -the weapon of the flesh :-an outbreak His Patience, are both shewn here. of the natural man no less noticeable than twelve—not perhaps so much from the that more-noticed one which followed be- number of the apostles, who were now fore morning. All four Evangelists “the eleven," but from that of the then
ver. 24. Luke
Isa. liii.7, &c. 54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, 'that thus .iv. 25, 44, it must be ? 55 In that same hour said Jesus to the mul
titudes, Are ye come out as against a a thief with swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, and ye laid no hold on me. 56 But all this b was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the disciples forsook him and fled. 57 And they that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. 58 But Peter followed him afar off unto a render, a robber.
o render, is done.
company, viz. the Lord and the eleven. especially the fulfilment of the Scriptures.
legions, because they were Roman In this they all found their central point. soldiers who were taking Him. The com- Compare bis dying words on the Cross, plement of the legion was about 6000 men. It is finished,—with this his assertion. The power implied in thinkest thou that I On the addition in Luke, see note there. cannot, shews the entire and continued Then all] Some of them did not free self-resignation of the Lord through- flee far. Peter and John went after Him out-and carries on the same truth as He to the palace of the High Priest; John, expressed John X. 18. 54.) how then ver. 15. On the additional circumstance -considering that this is so, that I volun. in Mark, ver. 51, see note there. tarily abstain from invoking such heavenly 57-68.7 HEARING BEFORE CAIAPHAS. aid, -shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that Mark xiv. 53–65. (Luke xxii. 54, 63thus it must be, if thou in thy rashness 65.) John xviii. 24. Previous to this took usest the help of fleshly weapons ?
place a hearing before Annas the real 55.] St. Mark begins this with an answered High Priest (see note on Luke iii. 2), to -it was an answer to their actions, not whom the Jews took Jesus first ;-who to their words. St. Luke, here ininutely enquired of Him about his disciples and accurate, informs us that it was to the his teaching (John vv. 19-23), and then chief priests and captains of the temple (ver. 24) sent Him bound to Caiaphas. and elders, that our Lord said this. Only John, who followed, relates this first
In his submission to be reckoned hearing. See notes on John vv. 12—24, among the transgressors, our Lord yet where this view is maintained. It may protests against any suspicion that He be sufficient here just to indicate the could act as such. sat (Matt. only) essential differences between that hearing to indicate complete quiet and freedom and this. On that occasion no witnesses from attack. daily-during the week were required, for it was merely a private past, and perhaps at other similar times. unofficial audience. Then the High Priest
sat teaching is the greatest possible questioned and our Lord replied: whereas contrast to a thief and robber. 56.] now, under false witness and reproach, It is doubted whether these words are a con. He (as before Herod) is silent. tinuation of our Lord's speech, or a remark 57. Caiaphas the high priest] He was inserted by St. Matthew. The use of all High Priest of that year, Annas having this was (is) done” in this Gospel would been deposed, and since then the High lead us to the latter conclusion : but when Priests having been frequently changed by wo reflect that thus our Lord's speech the Roman governors. where the would lose all its completeness, and that St. scribes ...] Probably they had assembled Mark gives in different words the speech by a preconcerted design, expecting their going on to this same purport, we must I prisoner. This was a meeting of the Santhink decide for the other view. Besides, hedrim, but not the regular assembly, if the remark were St. Matthew's, we should which condemned him and handed Him expect some particular citation, as is else. over to Pilate. That took place in the where his practice : see ch. i. 22; xxi. 4. morning, Luke xxii. 66-71 (where see Mark gives it elliptically, “but (so literally) note). We have not here the more that the scriptures might be fulfilled.” complete detail of John xviii. 15—–19. The The Passion and Death of Christ were palace is one and the same great building,