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Ps. xxvii. 12 :
the high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants, to see the end. 59 Now the chief priests, [c and elders,] and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death ; 60 d but found none: yea, though & many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last & Ps.xxvi. :12: came h two false witnesses, 61 and said, This [e fellow) said, h Deter. xix. is.
I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in ich. xxvii.co. three days. 62 And the high priest arose, and said unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these k Ika. Hivi
:7:12 witness against thee ? 63 But k Jesus held his peace. I see Lev.v. 1. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I 2, 20.adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. 64 Jesus saith unto 1,51. Rom. him, Thou hast said : nevertheless I say unto you, m ? Here
John ii. 19.
k Isa, liii. 7.
ch. xxvii. 12, 14.
1 Sam. xiv.
m Dan. vii. 13.
ch. xvi. 27 : xxiv. 30: XXV 31. John
Comitted by many ancient authorities. d read, but found none, even though many false witnesses came. e not expressed in the original. Better, This man, as in ch. xxvii. 47. f render, Henceforth.
in which both Annas and Caiaphas lived. of the words alleged to have been used by This is evident from a comparison of the thee? Our Lord was silent ; for in annarratives of Peter's denial : see below. swering He must have opened to them the The circumstance of a fire being lighted meaning of these his words, which was not and the servants sitting round it, men- the work of this His hour, nor fitting for tioned by the other three Evangelists, is that audience. 63.] See Levit. v. 1. here omitted. 59. false witness
I adjure thee, I put thee under an “As they thought, evidence, but in reality, oath,' the form of which follows. The juncfalse witness," Euthymius. But is this tion of the Son of God with the Christ must quite implied ? Is it uot the intention of not be pressed beyond the meaning which the Evangelist to represent that they Caiaphas probably assigned to it-viz. the sought false witness, not that they would title given to the Messiah from the purnot take true if they could get it, but that port of the prophecies respecting Him. they knew it was not to be had ?
It is however a very different thing when This hearing is altogether omitted in our Lord by His answer affirms this, and Luke, and only the indignities following invests the words with their fullest meanrelated, vv. 63–65. 60.) found they ing and dignity. 64.] By Thou hast none, i. e. sufficient for the purpose, or said, more may perhaps be implied than by perhaps, consistent with itself. See note St. Mark's “ I am :” that is a simple asseron Mark ver. 56. 61.) See ch. xxvii. tion: this may refer to the convictions 40: the false witness consisted in giving and admissions of Caiaphas (see John xi. that sense to His words, which it appears 49). But this is somewhat doubtful. The by ch. xxvii. 63 they knew they did not expression is only used here and in ver. 25 : bear. There is perhaps a trace, in the and there does not appear to be any referdifferent reports of Matt. and Mark, of the ence in it, as said to Judas, to any previous discrepancy between the witnesses. There admission of his nevertheless -i. e. is considerable difference between the words "there shall be a sign of the truth of what attributed to Him here, and there.
I say, over and above this confession of The instance likewise of his zeal for the Mine. Henceforth-the glorification honour of the temple, which had so lately of Christ is by Himself said to begin with occurred might tend to perplex the evi- his betrayal, see John xiii. 31 : from this dence produced to the contrary. 62.] time- from the accomplishment of this Better rendered, Dost thou not answer trial now proceeding. "In what follows, what it is which these testify against the whole process of the triumph of the thee? i. e. wilt thou give no explanation Lord Jesus even till its end is contained.
37: xix. 1.
3. ch. xxvii. 30.
n Prislil:ss. after shall ye see the Son of man » sitting on the right
hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. 03 Kings xviii. 65 • Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath
spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of wit
nesses ? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. p Lev. xxiv. 18. 66 What think ye? They answered and said, ” He is q Isa. 1. 6: 111. guilty of death. 67 9 Then did they spit in his face, and
buffeted him ; and others smote him [8 with the palms of their hands], 68 saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is he that smote thee ?
69 Now Peter sat without in h the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. 70 But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. 71 And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said unto them that were there, This [i fellow] was also with Jesus of Nazareth. 72 And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. 73 And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them ; for thy speech k bewrayeth thee. 74 Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And
immediately the cock crew. 75 And Peter remembered r ver. 31. the word of Jesus, which said unto him], ' Before the
8 not necessarily implied in the word ; see note.
1 omitted by many ancient authorities. The shall ye see is to the council, the re- Luke xxii. 66–71. 67.7 Luke gives presentatives of the chosen people, so soon these indignities, and in the same place as to be judged by Him to whom all judg- here, adding, what indeed might have been ment is committed—the power in contrast suspected that it was not the members of to his present weakness-sitting-even as the Sanhedrim, but the men who held they now sat to judge Him; and the Jesus in custody, who inflicted them on coming in the clouds of heaven (see Dan. Him.
The word rendered buffeted vii. 37) looks onward to the awful time of means to strike with the fist. The the end, when every eye shall see Him. following verb (smote him) is, generally,
65.] In Levit. xxi. 10 (see also to strike a flat blow with the back of the Levit. x. 6) the High Priest is ordered hand—but also, and probably here, since not to rend his clothes; but that appears another set of persons are described as doto apply only to mourning for the dead. ing it, to strike with a staff In 1 Macc. xi. 71, and in Josephus, B. J. 69–75.] OUR LORD IS THRICE DEi. 15. 4, we have instances of High Priests NIED BY PETER. Mark xiv. 66-72. rending their clothes. On rending the Luke xxii. 56–62. John xviii. 17, 18, clothes at hearing blasphemy, see 2 Kings 25-27. This narrative furnishes one of xviii. 37. 66.] This was not a formal the clearest instances of the entire indecondemnation, but only a previous vote or pendency of the four Gospels of one anexpression of opinion. That took place in other. In it, they all differ; and, supthe morning, see ch. xxvii. 1, and especially posing the denial to have taken place
cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out,
Ist | Sitting in the Warming him-Sitting by the Is recognized by denial. hall without, is self in the hall be- fire is recognized the porteresson
charged by a maid low,--&c. as Matt. by the maid and being introduced servant with hay: - goes out into charged -- replies, by the other dising been with Jesus the vestibule - "Woman, I know ciple. • Art not the Galilæan. Icock crows. I Him not.
thou also one of know not what thou know not, neither
this man's discisayest.' understand what
ples?' He saith, thou sayest.'
* I am not.'
2nd He has gone out The same maid Another (but a Is standing and denial. into the porch-|(possibly : but see male servant) says, warming himself.
another maid sees note, next page,col.* Thou also art of They said to him, him. This man 1, line 26) sees him them.' Peter said, “Art not thou also also was with Jesus again, and says, “ Man, I am not.' of His disciples ?' of Naz. He de-• This man is of
He denied, and nies with an oath, them. He denies
said, I am not.' *I do not know the again.
3rd | After a little
| After about an One of the slaves denial. while, the stand. As Matt. hour, another per- of the High-priest,
ers-by say, 'Surely •Surely thou art sisted saying, “Tru- his kinsman whose thou art of them; of them : for thou ly this man was ear Peter cut off, for thy dialect be- art also a Gali- with Him, for he says, Did I not trayeth thee.' He læan.'
is a Galilæan.' see thee in the garbegan to curse and
Peter said, “Man, den with Him?' to swear: 'I know
I know not what Peter then denied not the man.'
thou sayest.' again.
Immediately the A second time Immediately while Immediately the cock crew, and the cock crew, and he was yet speaking cock crew. Peter remembered, Peter remembered, the cock crew, and &c.—and going out &c.—and when he the Lord turned he wept bitterly. thought thereon he and looked on wept.
Peter, and Peter remembered, &c.and going out he wept bitterly.
On this table I would make the follow the admirable remarks of Augustine, cited ing remarks :-that generally,-(1) sup on ch. viii. 25 : and remember, that the posing the four accounts to be entirely substantive fact of a denial remains the independent of one another, -we are not same, whether I know not what thou say. bound to require accordance, nor would est, I know him not, or I am not, are there in all probability be any such ac. reported to have been Peter's answer. (3) cordance, in the recognitions of Peter by I do not see that we are obliged to limit different persons. These may have been the narrative to three sentences from inany on each occasion of denial, and in- Peter's mouth, each expressing a denial, dependent narrators may have fixed on and no more. On three occasions during different ones among them. (2) No reader, the night he was recognized,- on three who is not slavishly bound to the inspira- occasions he was a denier of his Lord : tion of the letter, will require that the such a statement may well embrace reactual words spoken by Peter should in iterated expressions of recognition, and each case be identically reported. See reiterated and importunate denials, on
and wept bitterly.
XXVII. 1 When the morning was
each occasion. And these remarks being corrected to one another : whereas their taken into account, I premise that all diffi- present varieties and coincidences are culty is removed froin the synopsis above most valuable as indications of truthful given : the only resulting inferences being, independence. What I wish to impress (a) that the narratives are genuine truthful on the minds of my readers is, that in naraccounts of facts underlying them all : and ratives which have sprung from such truth(b) that they are, and must be, absolutely ful independent accounts, they must be and entirely independent of one another. prepared sometimes (as e.g. in the details
For (1) the four accounts of the first of the day of the Resurrection) for discredenial are remarkably coincident. In all pancies which, at our distance, we cannot four, Peter was in the outer hall, where satisfactorily arrange : now and then we the fire was made (see on ver. 69): a maid may, as in this instance, be able to do servant (Mt. Mk. L.),--the maid servant so with something like verisimilitude :-in who kept the door (John) taxed him in some cases, not at all. But whether we differing words in each, the comparison can thus arrange them or not, being thoof which is very instructive) with being a roughly persuaded of the holy truthfulness. disciple of Jesus: in all four he denies, of the Evangelists, and of the divine guidagain in differing words. I should be dis- ance under which they wrote, our faith is posed to think this first recognition to in no way shaken by such discrepancies. have been but one, and the variations to We value them rather, as testimonies to be owing to the independence of the re- independence: and are sure, that if for one ports. (2) In the narratives of the SECOND moment we could be put in complete posdenial of our first preliminary remark is well session of all the details as they happened, exemplified. The same maid (Mk. possi- each account would find its justification, bly : but not necessarily-perhaps, only the and the reasons of all the variations would maiden in the vestibule or porch)-another appear. And this I firmly believe will one maid (Mt.), another (male) servant (Luke), day be the case. (See the narrative of the standers-by generally (John), charged Peter's denials ably treated in an article in him : again, in differing words. It seems the “ Christian Observer” for Feb. 1853.) he had retreated from the fire as if going 69.] “An oriental house is usually to depart altogether (see note, ver. 69), built round a quadrangular interior court; and so attracted the attention both of the into which there is a passage (sometimes group at the fire and of the porteress. It arched) through the front part of the house, would appear to me that for some reason, closed next the street by a heavy folding John was not so precisely informed of gate, with a small wicket for single persons, the details of this as of the other denials. kept by a porter. In the text, the interior The “going out” (Mt. Mk.) is a super- court, often paved or flagged, and open to added detail, of which the “ standing and the sky, is the ‘hall,' where the attendants warming himself” (John) does not seem made a fire; and the passage beneath the to be possessed. (3) On the THIRD occa. front of the house from the street to sion, the standers-by recognize him as a this court, is the pro-aulion (porch,' Galilæan (simply, Mk. [txt.), Luke: by Mark xiv. 68), or pylon (porch,' ver. his dialect, Mt., an interesting additional 71). The place where Jesus stood beparticular),— and a kinsman of Malchus fore the High Priest may have been an crowns the charge by identifying him in a open room or place of audience on the way which might have proved most peril ground floor, in the rear or on one side of ous, had not Peter immediately with the court; such rooms open in front, being drawn. This third time again, his denials customary.” Robinson. 70.] I know are differently reported :--but here, which not what thou sayest is an indirect forın of is most interesting, we have in Matt.'s and denial, conveying in it absolute ignorance Mark's “he began to curse and to swear”a of the circumstances alluded to. very plain intimation, that he spoke not 73.] thy speech - Wetstein gives many one sentence only, but a succession of examples of various provincial dialects of vehement denials.
Hebrew. The Galilæans could not proIt will be seen, that for fair comment on nounce properly the gutturals, and they the fourfold testimony, we must not com- used “t” for “8." 75.out-viz. mit the mistake of requiring the recogni. from the porch where the second tions, and the recognizers, in each case, and third denial had taken place: the to have been identical in the four. Had motive being, as Chrysostom gives it, they been thus identical, in a case of this “that he might not be convicted by his kind, the four accounts must have sprung tears.” from a common source, or have been CIIAP. XXVII. 1, 2.] JESUS IS LED
Acts iii. 13.
come, a all the chief priests and elders of the people took a Ps. ii. 2. . counsel against Jesus to put him to death : 2 and when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered bcha him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
3 c Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw ech. xxvi. 14, that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, 4 saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed [m the] innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us ? see thou to that. 5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, d and departed, and went and hanged a 2. sam. Acta himself. 6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the n treasury, because it is the price of blood. 7 And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in. 8 Wherefore that field was called, e The field e Acts i. 10. of blood, unto this day. 9 Then was fulfilled that which
d 2 Sam. xvii. 23. see Acts i. 18.
m omit. n better, the sacred treasury (Corbanan, see Mark vii. 11). AWAY TO PILATE. Mark xiv. 1. Luke complished purpose. The bitter feeling in xxii. 66 (who probably combines with this him now is expressed by I have sinned, of morning meeting of the Sanhedrim some which he is vividly and dreadfully conscious, things that took place at their early assem- now that the result has been attained. bly), xxiii. 1. John xviii. 28. The object Observe it was the thirty pieces of silver of this taking counsel, was so as (so lite, which he brought back-clearly the price rally) to put him to death,-i. e. to con- of the Lord's betrayal,- not earnest-money demn Him formally to death, and devise merely ;--for by this time, nay when he the best means for the accomplishment of delivered his Prisoner at the house of the sentence. 2.] Pontius Pilate the Annas, he would have in that case received governor, see note on Luke ii. 1 ;- and on the rest. 5.] in the temple-i.e. in the reason of their taking Him to Pilate, the holy place, where the priests only on John xviii. 31. Pilate ordinarily re- might enter. We must conceive him as sided at Cæsarca; but during the feast, in speaking to them without, and throwing Jerusalem.
the money into the temple. hanged (or 3–10.] REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF strangled) himself] On the account given JUDAS. Peculiar to Matthew. This inci. Acts i. 18, see note on that place. Another dent does not throw much light on the account of the end of Judas was current, motives of Judas. One thing we learn for which I have cited there. 6.] They certain—that our Lord's being condemned, said this probably by analogy from Deut. which he inferred from His being handed xxiii. 18. the price (given for shedover to the Roman governor, worked in ding) of blood; the wages of a murderer. him remorse, and that suicide was the con. 7. the potter's field] the field of some wellsequence. Whether this condemnation was known potter-purchased at so small a expected by him or not, does not here price probably from having been rendered appear; nor have we any means of ascer useless for tillage by excavations for clay : taining, except from the former sayings of see note on Acts i. 19. strangers our Lord respecting him. I cannot (see not Gentiles, but stranger Jews who came note on ch. xxvi. 14) believe that his in- up to the feasts. 8.] The field of blood tent was other than sordid gain, to be -Aceldama. See Acts i. 19. unto achieved by the darkest treachery. To this day] This expression shews that a consuppose that the condemnation took him siderable time had elapsed since the event, by surprise, seems to me to be incon- before St. Matthew's Gospel was published. sistent with the spirit of his own confes.
9.] The citation is not from Jeresion, ver. 4. There I have betrayed the miah (see ref.), and is probably quoted innocent blood expresses his act-his ac. from memory and unprecisely; we have