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f ch. 1. 23, 24.
Luke iv. 41.
Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea : and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judæa, 8 and from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him. 9 And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship should wait on him because of the multitude, lest they should throng him. 10 For he [chad] healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had plagues. 11 ? And d unclean fchule 28.. spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, & Thou art the Son of God. 12 And b hech 1:35,6 e straitly charged them that they should not make him known. 13 And he goeth up into fa mountain, and calleth unto him whom & he would: and they came unto him. 14 And he hordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, 15 and to have power [i to heal sicknesses, and] to cast out devils : 16 and Simon i he surnamed Peter; 17 and James [k the son i John i. 42. of Zebedee, and John the brother of James ; and he suro not in the original.
d render, the unclean spirits. e render, charged them much.
f render, the. 8 literally, he himself.
h render, appointed. i omitted in some of the oldest MSS. k not expressed in the original. miserable state of hard-heartedness. sible that any but the spirits could have 6. Herodians7 See notes on Matt. xvi. 6, known that He was the Son of God, so and xxii. 16. Why the Pharisees and it was the material body of the possessed Herodians should now combine, is not which fell down before Him, and their apparent. There must bave been some voice which uttered the cry: see note on reason of which we are not aware, which Matt. viii. 32. The notion of the semiunited these opposite sects in enmity rationalists that the sick identified themagainst our Lord.
selves with the dæmons, is at once refuted 7-12.) A GENERAL SUMMARY OF by the universal agreement of the testiOUR LORD'S HEALING AND CASTING OUT mony given on such occasions, that Jesus DEVILS BY THE SEA OF GALILEE. Pecu- was the Son of God. liar in this shape to Mark ; but probably 13–19.] THE APPOINTMENT OF THE answering to Matt. xii. 15—21. Luke vi. TWELVE, AND ITS PURPOSES. Matt. x. 17-19. The description of the multi. 1-4. Luke vi. 12–16. See Luke, where titudes, and places whence they came, sets we learn that He went up overnight to pray. before us, more graphically than any where and called his disciples to Him when it was else in the Gospels, the composition of the day, and notes on Matthew. On the audiences to which the Lord spoke, and mountain see Matt. v, 1.
14.] The whom He healed. The repetition of a literal sense of the word rendered ordained great multitude (ver. 8) is the report of is made : i. e. nominated, -set apart. We one who saw the numbers from Tyre and have here the most distinct intimation of Sidon coming and going. 11.] The any, of the reason of this appointment. unclean spirits are here spoken of in the
16.] On the list of the Apostles, see person of those possessed by them, and the note at Matt. x. 2. The name Peter, two fused together : for as it was impos- according to St. Mark, seems to be now first
m Matt. ix. 34.
Luke xi. 15.
named them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder : 18 and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James [k the son] of Alphæus, and Thaddæus, and Simon the 1 Canaanite, 19 and Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him.
And they went into an house. 20 And the multitude k ch. vi. 31. cometh together again, k so that they could not so much as
eat bread. 21 And when his friends heard of it, they went 1 John vii.5: out to lay hold on him : " for they said, He is beside him
self. 22 And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem m Matt. 11. 184. said, m He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils vol. 18,753 ?: casteth he out devils. 23 And he called them unto him,
and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? 24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 26 And if Satan
rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, k not expressed in the original. I read, Cananæan : see note on Matt. x. 4. given. This, at all events, does not look resumed by then in ver. 31: see refl. like the testimony of Peter : but perhaps went out” (perhaps from Nazareth,-or, the words are not to be so accurately answering to John ii. 12, from Caper. pressed. 17.] Boanerges, -perhaps on naum), set out: see ch. v. 14. They heard account of their vehement and zealous dis of his being so beset by crowds : see vy. position, of which we see marks Luke ix. 7-11. Our version is right in giving 54: Mark ix. 38; X. 37 : see also 2 John 10; the meaning He is mad: for the sense but this is uncertain.
requires it. They had doubtless heard of 20–35.] CHARGES AGAINST JESUS, the accusation of his having a dæmon : OF MADNESS BY HIS RELATIONS, which we must suppose not to have first OF DEMONIACAL POSSESSION BY THE begun after this, but to have been going SCRIBES. HIS REPLIES. Matt. xii. 22 on throughout this course of miracles. 37, 46–50. Luke xi. 14-26; viii. 19-21. 22.] the scribes which came down Our Lord had just cast out a deaf and from Jerusalem .... peculiar to Mark : see dumb spirit (see notes on Matthew) in the note on Matt. ver. 24. Here Matthew has open air (Matt., ver. 23), and now they re “the Pharisees "-Luke“ some of them,” tire into the house. The omission of this, i. e. “ the people.” He hath Beelzebub] wholly inexplicable if St. Mark had had This addition is most important. If He either Matthew or Luke before him, belongs was possessed by Beelzebub, the prince of to the fragmentary character of his Gospel. the demons, He would thus have authoThe common accounts of the compilation rity over the inferior evil spirits. of this Gospel are most capricious and ab. 23.7 he called them unto him is not surd. In one place, St. Mark omits a dis inconsistent with His being in an housecourse, because it was not his purpose He called them to Him, they having been to relate discourses ;' in another he gives far off. We must remember the large a discourse, omitting the occasion which courts in the oriental houses in paraled to it, as here. The real fact being, bles, namely, a kingdom, &c., a house, &c., that the sources of St. Mark's Gospel are the strong man, &c. How can Satan generally of the highest order, and most cast out Satan?] The external unity of direct, but the amount of things con Satan and his kingdom is strikingly detained very scanty and discontinuous. clared by this simple way of putting the
20. again] resumed from ch. ii. 2. question : see note on Matthew. The ex, 21.7 Peculiar to Mark. his pression must not be taken as meaning, Can friends] those from his house : his rela- one devil cast out another? The Satan tions, beyond a doubt--for the sense is who casts out and the Satan who is cast out
but hath an end. 27 No man can enter into a strong n Isa. xlix. 24. man's house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house. 28 o Verily I say unto you, All m sins shall be forgiven unto o 1 John v. 16. the sons of men, and n blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: 29 but he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is o in danger of eternal damnation : 30 because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.
31 There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him. 32 And the multitude sat about him, and they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren P without seek for thee. 33 And he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren? 34 And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! 35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.
IV. 1 And he began again to teach by the sea side : and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into ba ship, and sat in the sea ; and the whole m render, their sins.
A render, the blasphemies.
b render, the. are the same person : compare ver. 26. “He stretched forth his hand upon his 26.7 but hath an end, peculiar to Mark. disciples.".... Both accounts were from
29. guilty of eternal sin] Beza eye-witnesses, the one noticing the out. explains eternal by 'never to be wiped out. stretched hand; the other, the look cast It is to the critical treatment of the round. Deeply interesting are such parsacred text that we owe the restoration ticulars, the more so, as shewing the way of such important and deep-reaching ex- in which the records arose, and their pressions as this. It finds its parallel in united strength, derived from their indeye shall die in your sins, John viii. 24. pendence and variety. Kuinoel's idea, quoted and adopted by CHAP. IV. 1-9.7 PARABLE OF THE Wordsw., that sin means the punishment SOWER. No fixed mark of date. Matt. of sin, seems to be entirely unfounded. xiii. 1-9. Luke viii. 4-8. There is the And as to its being “a Novatian error to same intermixture of absolute verbal idenassert that sin is eternal” (Wordsw.), it is tity and considerable divergence, as we at all events a legitimate inference from have so often noticed: which is wholly “hath never forgiveness” (literally, remis inexplicable on the ordinary suppositions. sion). If a sin remains unremitted for ever, In this case the vehicles of the parable in what is it but eternal ? 30.] explains Matthew and Mark (see Matthew, vv.1-3; the ground and meaning of this awful Mark, vv. 1, 2) bear a strong, almost verbal, denunciation of the Lord.
31.] resemblance. Such a parable would be standing without, sent unto him, calling carefully treasured in all the Churches as a him is one of Mark's precise details.
subject of catechetical instruction : and, 32.] And the multitude sat about him is in general, in proportion to the popular another such. 34.] Matthew here has nature of the discourse, is the resemblance some remarkable and graphic details also : stronger in the reports of it. 1. again] n not in the original. see ch. iii. 7. The began is coincident are without added here (“the rest,” Luke) with the gathering together of the crowd. means the multitudes—those out of the
9 John xv.5.
Col. i. 6.
r1 Cor. y. 12.
Col. iv. 5.
John xii. 40. Acts xxviii. 28. Rom. xi.
multitude was by the sea on the land. 2 And he taught p ch. xii. 38. them many things by parables, Pand said unto them in
his doctrine, 3 Hearken; Behold, e there went out a sower to sow : 4 and it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls [d of the air] came and devoured it up. 5 And some fell on estony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth : 6 but when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among f thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And other fell on 6 good ground, 4 and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred. 9 And he said [h unto them), He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. 10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the i parable. 11 And he said unto
them, Unto you [k it] is given [k to know] the mystery of recher !?. the kingdom of God: but unto "them that are without,
all [1 these] things are done in parables: 12 s that seeing Fahrirdi. 40. they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may a Rom. ii. hear, and not understand ; lest at any time they should be
converted, and m their sins should be forgiven them.
how [n then] will ye know all parables ?
I render, the thorns.
h omit. i read, parables. komit. 1 not in the original. m some ancient authorities read, it should be forgiven them, impersonal : i.e. they should have forgiveness.
2.] Out from among the many circle of his followers. In the Epistles, things, the great mass of His teaching, all who are not Christians,—the corone parable is selected, which he spoke responding meaning for those days,--are during it-in his doctrine. 3.] Hearken designated by it. 12.) We must keep ---this solemn prefatory word is peculiar the that strictly to its full meaning-in to Mark. 4-8.7 Matthew and Mark order that. When God transacts a matter, agree nearly verbally. In ver. 7 St. Mark it is idle to say that the result is not the adds and it yielded no fruit, and in ver. 8, purpose. He doeth all things after the that sprang up and increased.
counsel of His own will. St. Matthew, as 10–12.] REASON FOR SPEAKING IN usual, quotes a prophecy; St. Mark hardly PARABLES. Matt. xiii. 10–17. Luke viii. ever-except at the beginning of his 9, 10.
10.7 they that were about Gospel : St. Luke, very seldom. him with the twelve; "his disciples" 13—20.7 EXPLANATION OF THE PALuke. 11.] the mystery; “the mys- RABLE OF THE SOWER. In this parable teries” Matthew and Luke. them that the general question which had been asked
Luke viii. 10:
Luke xii. 2.
14 The sower soweth the word. 15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in o their hearts. 16 And these are they likewise which are sown on P stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness; 17 and have no root in themselves, and so 9 endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended. 18 And r these are they which are sown among thorns; 8 such as hear the word, 19 and the cares of t this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of + 1 Tim. vi. O, other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 20 And these are they which are sown on a good ground ; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some v thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred. 21 u And he said unto them, Is a candle u Matt. x: 15: brought to be put under wa bushel, or under w a bed ? 11.88. and not to be set on wa candlestick? 22 ° For there is " Matt. 1:26. nothing hid, & which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come y abroad. 23 w If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. 24 And w Matt. xi. 15. o read, them.
P render, the stony places. 9 or, are creatures of circumstances : see note on Matt. xiii. 21. I read, others.
S read, these are they which have heard. t read, the.
a render, the good ground. v render, thirty, as in ver. 8.
w render, the. x the reading iš in some uncertainty. That of the Vatican MS. and the Sinaitic which seems the best, is, except that it should be manifested.
y render, to light. ver. 10 with regard to parables is tacitly the lusts of other things :-and some variaassumed to have had special reference tions, e. g. Satan for St. Matthew's “the to the one parable which has been given wicked one," and St. Luke's “the devil.” at length. Or we may understand, that Such matters are not trifling, because the question of ver. 10 took the form they shew the gradual deflection of verbal which is given in Matthew : “Why expression in different versions of the same speakest thou unto them in parables ?” in report,- nor is the general agreement of which case the words must mean, asked St. Luke's, which seems to be from a dif. Him concerning parables; or His para ferent hearer. 16.] likewise, after the bles. The three explanations (see Matt. same analogy :-carrying on a like principle xiii. 18–23: Luke viii. 9-15) are very of interpretation. 20.] Notice the connearly related to one another, with however cluding words of the interpretation exactly differences enough to make the common reproducing those of the parable, ver. 8, as hypotheses quite untenable. Matthew and characteristic. . It is remarkable that the Mark agree nearly verbatim ; Matthew same is found in Matthew but in another however writing throughout in the sin- form and order: one taking the climax, the gular. Mark has some additions, e. g. the other the anticlimax. In Luke, the two are sower Soweth the word, ver. 14,-after varied. 21-25.] Luke viii. 16–18; “the deceitfulness of riches,” ver. 19, and and for ver. 25, Matt. xiii. 12. The rest is