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day, that they P watched him. 2 And, behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy.

3 And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, a Is it lawful to heal on the 9 sabbath day? 4 And a Matt. xii. 10. they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go; 5 and answered them, saying, • Which of you shall have & an ass or an ox fallen into a b Exod. 1x111.5. pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath ch.xili.16. day? 6 And they could not answer him again to these things. 7 And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief t

rooms ; saying unto them, 8 When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest Vroom ; lest a more honourable man than thou w be bidden of him; 9 and he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, P render, were watching.

I read, sabbath day, or not? some ancient authorities have, said unto them. See Matt. xii, 11. $ read, a son, or an ox.


render, places. U render, hast been.

V render, place. W render, shall have been. Gamaliel, &c. to eat bread] The Jews rescued from perishing : am I, (the posused to give entertainments on the Sab- sessor of heaven and earth,—this lies in bath, see Neh. viii. 9-12; Tobit ii. 1. the background) to let mine perish withThe practice latterly became an abuse, – out care or rescue?' There may be see quotations from Augustine in my Greek in the words the meaning “son, or even Test. 2.] before him, not as a guest ; ox;" but I prefer rendering them simply. see ver. 4, and compare ch. vii. 37, and 7—24.] SAYINGS OF OUR LORD AT note on ver. 45. “He was standing there,” THIS SABBATH FEAST. 7–11.] It says Euthymius, “not daring to ask to be does not appear that the foregoing miracle healed, on account of the Sabbath, and the gave occasion to this saying ; so that it is Pharisees; but only shewing himself, that no objection to it, that it has no connexion our Lord might see him and be moved with it. Our Lord, as was His practice, with pity, and so proceed to heal him.” founds His instructions on what He saw It does not appear, though it is certainly happening before Him. As Trench possible, that he was set there by the Pha. remarks, it is probable this was a splendid risees on purpose. This was before the entertainment, and the guests distinguished meal (ver. 7). 5.] There is a strict persons (ver. 12).

7.) chief places, propriety in the comparison : the accident i. e., see Matt. xxiii. 6, the middle place in and disease are analogous. son, or an each couch, wbich was the most honourable. ox] This reading, which, from the weight At a large feast there would be many of of ancient testimony in its favour, evidently these. 8.] The whole of this has, was the original, seemed incompatible with besides its plain reference, a deeper one, the supposed argument from the less to the linked into it by the important word greater :---son was therefore altered to ass wedding, carrying with it all that meaning (as in ch. xiii. 15) or sheep, as one of our which it always has when relating to the ancient MSS. has it. But our Lord's argu- Kingdom of God. Both senses are obment is of another and a far deeper kind. vious, and only one remark needed ;—that The stress is on you: and the point of all that false humility, by which men put comparison is the ownership, and conse- themselves lowest and dispraise themselves quent tender care, of the object in ques- of set purpose to be placed higher, is, by tion. Those who are in your possession the very nature of our Lord's parable, exand care, whether belonging to your fami- cluded : for that is not bona fide abasing lies, or your herds, are cared for, and one's self. The exaltation at the hands of


Ps. xviii. 27.

Give this man place ; and thou begin with shame to take c Prov. Ixv. 6, the lowest y room. 10 But when thou art bidden, go and

sit down in the lowest y room ; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher :

then shalt thou have z worship in the presence of a them d Job xxii. 29. that sit at meat with thee. 11 d For whosoever exalteth Proviarie himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself

shall be exalted. 12 Then said he also to him that bade i Pet. v.6.* him, When thou makest a b dinner or a supper, call not

thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest they also bid thee again, and a recompence be made thee.

13 But when thou makest a • Noh. viii. 10, feast, call e the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind :

14 and thou shalt be blessed; for they cannot recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of

xxiii. 12. ch. xviii. 14. James iv. 6.

the just.

15 And when one of them that sat at meat with him ( Rev. xix. l. heard these things, he said unto him, 'Blessed is he that g Matt. xxii. 2. shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. 16 & Then said he

unto him, A certain man made a great supper, and bade I render, then shalt thou begin.

y render, place. % render, glory. a read, all them. b

see above on ch. xi. 37. the Host is not to be a purposed end to the poor, i. e. lend it to the Lord; and the guests, but will follow true humility. then, as in ver. 14, there will be a recom

9. then shalt thou begin ...] pense at the resurrection of the just, which The form of expression sets forth the re- shall not be a mere equivalent, but a rich luctance and lingering with which it is reward. 14.] the resurrection of done. 11.] As an example of the first the just, the first resurrection, here disclause, see Isa. xiv. 13-15; of the second, tinctly asserted by our Lord; otherwise Phil. ii. 5-11. 12–14.] The composi- the words of the just would be vapid and tion of the company before Him seems to unmeaning See 1 Cor. xv. 22 f.; i Thess. have given occasion for this saying of our ir. 16; Rev. xx. 4, 5. 15 – 24.] Lord. The Pharisee his host had doubt. Parable of the Great Supper. One of less, with the view of watching Him) the guests takes this literally, and imamentioned in ver. 1, invited the principal gines the great feast to rohich the Jews persons of the place, and with the inten- looked forward to be meant. He spoke tion of courting their favour, and getting a Jero, and probably with an idea a return. The Lord rebukes in him this that, as such, his admission to this feast spirit ;-and it bas been well remarked, was sure and certain. Our Lord an. that the intercourse and civilities of social swers him by the parable following, which life among friends and neighbours are here shewed him that, true as his assertion was, presupposed, (inasmuch as for them there (and He does not deny it,) the blessedness takes place a recompense, and they are would not be practically so generally struck off the list by this means,) with this acknowledged nor entered into. The caution,- that our means are not to be Parable, whatever analogy it may bear sumptuously laid out upon them, but upon with that in Matt. xxii. 1 ff., is wholly something far better, the providing for different from that in many essential the poor and maimed and lame and blind. points. 16.] The great supper is the When we will make a sacrifice, and pro. kingdom of God, the feast of fat things in vide at some cost, let us not throw our Isa. xxv. 6; completed in the marriage. money away, as we should if a recompense supper of the Lamb; but fully prepared is made to us in this world : but give it to when the glad tidings of the Gospel were pro


to prove

many : 17 and 5 sent his servant at supper time to say to h Prov. iz. 2, 5. them that were bidden, Come; for [call] things are now ready. 18 And they all with one consent began to make excuse.

The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused.

19 And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I


them : I


thee have me excused. 20 And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. 21 So d that servant came, and shewed his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind. 22 And the servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and yet there is room. 23 And the Lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that

be filled.

24 For I
Comitted by several ancient authorities.
read, the.

e render, didst command. claimed. bade many: these first bidden ments and his lust to satisfy. All are are the Pharisees and Scribes aud the detained by worldliness, in however varied learned among the Jews. 17.] The ser- forms. 21.] The gathering of guests vant represents one spirit, one message: but is still in the city (Matt. xxii. 7); that is, is not necessarily, in the three cases, one still among the Jews.

the streets and the same person. The three messages and lanes, the broad and narrow streets : were delivered (1) by John the Baptist and perhaps the cities and villages through our Lord : (2) by our Lord and the Apos- which the Lord and his Apostles jour. tles; (3) by the Apostles and those who neyed preaching. came after. The elder prophets cannot be again the very persons of ver. 13; the meant, for (all] things are now ready representatives of the wretched and dewas the message, representing the procla- spised : the common people (great mulmation of John the Baptist and our Lord, titude),” Mark xii. 37: not perhaps withThe kingdom of heaven is at hand.out a hint, that only those who knew

18–20.) with one consent; so (ch. themselves to be spiritually poor and vii. 30) they had rejected John's baptism, maimed and halt and blind would come and (John vii. 48) the Lord himself. The to the Gospel feast. 22.] The palace saying is not to be taken strictly without ex. is large, and the guest-room: “neither ception, e.g. that of Nicodemus : but gene- nature nor grace endures a vacuum,” rically. So also ver. 24. The temper Bengel. 23.] The calling of the Gen. of these self-excusers is threefold; the ex- tiles, outside the city ; in the country cuses themselves are threefold ; their spirit (Matt. xxii. 9, 10). compel them to is one.

The first alleges a necessity,- he come in] Is there not here an allusion must


and see his land : the second not to Infant Baptism ? for remember they 80 much as this, only his own plan and who come in are good and bad. (Matt. I. purpose —go to prove them;" the c.) 24.] I think with Stier, that third not so much as either of these, but our Lord bere speaks in his own Person : rudely asserts I cannot (i. e. I will unto you will fit no circumstance in the not) come.” Also the excuses themselves parable ; for the householder and his serare threefold. The first has his worldly vant are alone : the guests are not prepossession ("one to his farm,' Matt. xxii. sent. He speaks, with His usual For I 5) to go and see: the second his purchase say unto you, to the company present : (another to his merchandise,' ibid.) of and half continuing the parable, half exstock to prove : the third his home engage- pounding it, substitutes Himself for the

Here appear

i Matt. xxi. 43:

xxii. 8. Acts xiii. 48.

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i That f none of those men which were bidden shall taste of my supper.

25 And there went great multitudes with him: and he k Deut: xli. 6: turned, and said unto them, 26 k If any man come to me,

Kont. Iz.73. and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and m Rev. xii. 11. children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life n Matt wwi : also, he cannot be my disciple. 27 [8 And] "whosoever doth tim. Ni. 12. not bear his cross, and come after

me, cannot be


diso Prov. xxiv. ciple. 28 For which of you, h intending to build a tower,

sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it? 29 Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him, 30 saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish. 31 Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consultcth whether he be able with ten thousand to

meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand ? f render, not one.

& omit.


render, wishing master of the feast, leaving it hardly love which makes a man a wise and Chrisdoubtful who those men which were tian friend, -not for time only, but for bidden are.

eternity. 28-30.] Peculiar to Luke. 25—35.) DISCOURSE TO THE MULTI- The same caution is followed out in this

Our Lord is at some time further parable. This is to be borne in mind, or on in the journey, going forward, and it will be misinterpreted. The ground of speaking to the multitude on counting the the parable is, that entire self-renunciation cost before any man becomes his disciple. is requisite, to becoine a disciple of Christ.

26, 27.j See Matt. x. 37, 38, and This man wishes to build a tower : to raise note. The remark there made of the that building (see 1 Cor. iii. 11-15), which strangeness of this sound of the Cross, still we must rear on the one Foundation, and applies : our Lord had not yet announced which shall be tried in the day of the Lord. his death by crucifixion. hate not] He is advised to count the cost, to see It is well to enquire what sense this word whether he have enough thoroughly to here bears. That no such thing as active finish it. If he begin, lay the foundation, hatred can be meant, is plain: our Lord -however seemingly well it may be done, himself is an example to the contrary, it is not well done, because he has not John xix. 25—27 : the hate is the general, enough to complete it; and the attempt not personal, feeling of alienation in the can only lead to shame. So it is with one inmost heart,-so that this world's rela- who would be Christ's disciple : but with tionships, as belonging to the state of this weighty difference, lying in the backthings in this world, are not the home and ground of the parable -- that in his case rest of the heart. This is evident from the counting the cost must always issue in the yea, and his own life also, which fol. a discovery of the utter inadequacy of his lows. Let the hate begin here, and little own resources, and the going out of him. explanation will be further wanted. This self for strength and means to build. addition also shews that the saying was 31-33.] This same lesson is even not meant only for those times, in which more pointedly set before us in the followmore perhaps of the disruption of earthly ing parable, which, as well as the other, is ties was required, but for all time : for his frequently misunderstood. The two kings own life is equally dear to every man in here are,—the man desirous to become a every age. It hardly need be observed disciple, to work out his salvation, - and that this hate is not only consistent with, God, with whose just and holy law he is but absolutely necessary to the very high- naturally at variance ;—it is his “adverest kind of love. It is that element in sary," see ch. xii. 58, and note:—these


33 So

32 or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace. likewise, whosoever he be of you that i forsaketh not all that be hath, he cannot be my disciple. 34 Pj Salt is good : P Mate 1.3. but if k the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned ? 35 It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill; but men cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

XV. 11 Then a drew near unto him all the publicans and a Matt. ir. 10. sinners for to hear him. 2 And the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and beateth b Actors

render, biddeth not farewell to. j some ancient authorities read, Salt therefore is good. k read, even the.


render, Now there were drawing near. two are going to engage in war; and the wherewith, &c. ? Such a disciple is to be question for each man to sit down and ask cast out. Salt was not used for land, Ps. himself is, 'Can I, with (the word may cvii. 34, nor for mingling with manure ; it probably mean clad in,-surrounded by, is of no use for either of those purposes, all that I have, all my instrument of war) but must be utterly cast out. my ten thousand, stand the charge of Him CHAP. XV. PARABLES, SETTING FORTH who cometh against me with (the preposi- God's MERCY TO SINNERS. 1-7.] tion is different, and may represent only as THE LOST SAEEP. It does not appear where many as He pleases to bring with Him for or when this gathering of publicans and the purpose, see Ps. lxviii. 17, A.V.) twenty sinners to hear Him happened, but certhousand ?'-see Job xv. 24-26.

tainly in the progress of this same journey, Here the inadequacy of man's resources is and, we may well believe, consecutively on plainly set forth, not left, as in the former the discourses in the last chapter. This parable, to be inferred. Then, finding first parable had been spoken by our Lord that he has no hope of prevailing,—while before, Matt. xviii. 12–14: but, as Trench the other is yet a great way off, while has remarked, with a different view : there, there is yet time,-he sends an embassy, to bring out the preciousness of each indiand sues for peace, abandoning the con

vidual little one in the eyes of the good flict: throwing himself upon the mere Shepherd; here, to shew that no sheep can mercy and grace of God ;-bidding fare

have strayed so widely, but He will seek it well to all that he hath in both cases. and rejoice over it when found. The

The ordinary misinterpretation of second is peculiar to Luke. 1.] there this parable is in taking the king with were drawing near-were busied in drawtwenty thousand to be the ruler of this ing near-were continually about Him, world, i. e. Satan—which destroys all the struck perhaps with penitence,-found, by sense :- for with him the natural man is His seeking them :- having come from the at peace, but the disciple of Christ at husks of a life of sin, to the bread of life;

34, 35.] For the third time, our --so the three parables seem to imply. Lord repeats the saying concerning salt:

all the publicans, a general term, see Matt. v. 13: Mark ix. 50, and notes. admitting of course of exceptions, see ch. The therefore and even, here restored to xiii. 33 and note. 2.] receiveth into the text are both valuable; the former as His circle of adherents-eateth with them, importing the recurrence of a saying known allows them to sit at meat with Him ;-on before, the latter as giving force to the the journey, or at entertainments, as in supposition. The salt, in Scripture sym. Matt. ix. 10. Stier remarks (iii. 214, bolism, is the whole life-retaining anti- edn. 2) that this receiveth sinners is an septic influence of the Spirit of God :--this, important and affecting testimony, from working in the being My disciple, is good: the mouth of the eneinies of our Lord, to but if even this be corrupted—if the mere his willingness to receive them. The appearance of this, and not the veritable peculiar word rendered murmured implies salt (which is the savour), be in you — either that they did so throughout the

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