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ver. 46.

vi. 38.

y ch. xxi. 37. 39 And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the

mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him. 2 Matt. vi. 13. 40 z And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray

that ye enter not into temptation. 41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down and

prayed, 42 saying, Father, if thou be w willing, remove this 2 John v. 80: cup from me: nevertheless a not my will, but thine, be done. • Matt. iv. 11. 43 [* And there appeared ban angel unto him from heaven, John xii, 27. strengthening him. 44 © And being in an agony he prayed

more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.] 45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, 46 and said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.

Heb. v. 7.

d ver. 40.

w render, willing to remove.

x verses 43, 44 are omitted in some of our oldest MSS., but contained in others, and in the most ancient versions. See the testimonies of the Fathers in my Gr. Test.

39—46.7 CHRIST'S AGONY AT THE to this circumstance as improbable. Mount OF OLIVES. Matt. xxvi. 36–46. This strengthening probably took place beMark xiv, 32—42. John xviii. 1. For all tween the first and the second prayer ;comment on the general narrative, see and the effect of it is, that He prayed more notes on Matthew. Our account is com- earnestly, ver. 44, and arrived at the enpendious, combines the three prayers of tire resignation expressed in the second and our Lord into one, and makes no mention third prayer of St. Matthew's narrative. of the Three Apostles being taken apart

44.] The intention of the Evanfrom the rest. On the other hand it in- gelist seems clearly to be, to convey the serts the very important additional details idea that the sweat was (not fell like, but of vv. 43, 44, besides the particularity of was) like drops of blood ;-i. e. coloured ver. 41, “ about a stone's cast.

with blood,- for so I understand the as it 42.] The sentence is broken off at me ... were, as just distinguishing the drops If Thou be willing ;-let it be 80. The A.V. highly coloured with blood, from pure is not a correct reading in grammar. blood. Aristotle, speaking of certain mor. 43.] With the early and weighty evidence bid states of the blood, says, “when the cited in my Gr. Test. in favour of verses blood is watery, grievous disease ensues : 43, 44, it is impossible that they should for it becomes serous and milky, to such have been an apocryphal insertion. The an extent that some have been known to passage was perhaps expunged by the perspire a bloody sweat." To suppose that orthodox, who imagined they found in it it only fell like drops of blood (why not an inconsistency with the divine nature of drops of anything else ? and drops of our Lord. We have reason to be thank- blood from what, and where ?) is to nullify ful, that orthodoxy has been better under the force of the sentence. We must stood since. The strengthening by means not forget, in asking on what testimony of the angel is physical-and the appear this rests, that the marks of such drops ance likewise. It is strange how Olshausen would be visible after the termination of can have so far deceived himself as to the agony. An interesting example of a imagine that appeared unto him can sweat of blood under circumstances of imply a merely inward and spiritual acces strong terror, accompanied by loss of sion of strength from above. It is strange speech, is cited in the Medical Gazette for likewise that the analogy of the ministra. December, 1848. It occurred in the case tion of angels in the Lord's former tempta- of certain Norwegian sailors in a tretion should not have occurred to those mendous storm. 45.] for sorrow modern Commentators who have objected the effect of anxiety and watching. The

e John xii. 37:

xiii. 30.

47 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. 48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss ? 49 When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword ? 50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. 51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear and healed him. 52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves ? 53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: e but this e Johnsxii. 37: is your hour, and the power of darkness.

54 Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. And Peter followed afar off. 55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the words may possibly express an inference important addition here to the other reof the Evangelist: but I would rather ports of our Lord's speech ;- but this is understand them as exactly describing the your hour, and the power of darkness. cause of their sleeping.

It stands here instead of the declaration 47–53.] BETRAYAL AND APPREHEN. that this was done that the Scriptures SION OF JESUS. Matt. xxvi. 47–56. might be fulfilled (Matthew, ver. 56 : Mark xiv. 43–52. John xviii. 2-11. Mark, ver. 49). The inner sense of those Our narrative is here distinguished even words is indeed implied here, but we canmore than before by minute and striking not venture to say that our report is of details (see on the whole the notes to the same saying. Our Lord here Matthew). The first of these is the distinguishes between the power exercised address to Judas, ver. 48, calling the over Kim by men, and that by the Evil traitor by name, and setting before him One :- but so as to make the power the whole magnitude of his crime in the which rules over them to be that of darkvery words in which the treason had ness—while His own assertion of this lately (Matthew, ver. 45: Mark, ver. 41) shews that all was by the determinate and so often (Matt. xxvi. 2; xx. 18; xvii. counsel and foreknowledge of God. In 22) been announced.

Another is in the word darkness there is also an allusion ver. 49, where the disciples, seeing what to the time-midnight. Compare with would follow, ask, Lord, shall we smite this declaration of the power of darkness with the sword ? which question refers to over Him, the declaration, in ch. iv. 13, and is the filling up of their misunder that the devil left Him “for a season." standing of our Lord in ver. 38.

54.] Matt. xxvi. 57. Mark xiv. 53. Again ver. 51 is peculiar to Luke.

John xviii. 13. Our narrative leaves it 51.] Suffer ye thus far I understand as undecided who this high priest was, inas. addressed, not to the disciples, but to the much as, ch. iii. 2, Annas and Caiaphas multitude, or rather to those who were are mentioned as high priests. From St. holding Him; -His hands were held, John we find that it was Annas ; who and He says, Suffer, permit me, thus far: having questioned Jesus, sent Him bound i. e. to touch the ear of the wounded per- to Caiaphas, before whom His trial took son. If this. interpretation be correct, it place. St. Luke omits this trial altofurnishes an additional token of the truth. gether-or perhaps gives the substance of fulness of our narrative; for the previous it in the account (vv. 66–71) of the laying hold of Jesus has not been men. morning assembly of the Sanhedrim. See tioned here, but in Matthew (ver. 50) and notes on Matthew. Mark (ver. 46). 53.] There is an 65—62.] PETER'S THREE DENIALS OF

; VOL. I.

I Acts iv, 20.


hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. 56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by y the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him. 57 And he denied [z him), saying, Woman, I know him not. 58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. 69 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this a fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilæan. 60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. 61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock aa crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. 62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.

63 And the men that held b Jesus mocked him, and smote him. 64 And when they had blindfolded him, they [c struck him on the face, and] asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee? 65 And many other things

blasphemously spake they against him. see Acto xtil. 66 And as soon as it was day, ai the elders of the people and

y literally, the light. So also Mark xiv. 54: but see note here. z omitted by some ancient authorities,

& better, man : not expressed in the original. 2a read, crow this day.

b read, him. Comitted by many ancient authorities. d render, the assembly of the elders of the people, chief priests and scribes : see note. JESUS. Matt. xxvi. 69–75. Mark xiv. 63–65.] HE IS MOCKED. St. Luke 66–72. John xviii. 17, 18, 25–27. See does not, as some Commentators say, place throughout, table and notes in Matthew. this mocking before the trial in Caiaphas's

56.) The word light here seems to be house, but in the same place as Matthew, used as accounting for the words beholding vv. 67, 68, and Mark ver. 65, viz. after him : not so in Mark xiv. 54, where it is what happened there. The trial he omits merely “he warmed himself at the light.altogether, having found no report of it.

58. another (masculine)] In Mat. How those who take this view of St. Luke's thew it is feminine, -in Mark, the maid. arrangement can yet suppose him to bave

61.7 See extract from Robinson's had Matthew and Mark before him while notes on Matthew, ver. 69. If, as there writing, I am wholly at a loss to conceive. supposed, the trial was going on in an open 66-71.7 HEARING BEFORE THE COUN. chamber looking on the court, the look CIL. (Probably) Matt. xxvii. 1. Mark might well have been given from a con- xiv. 1. It seems probable that St. Luke siderable distance. We need not enquire, here gives us an account of a second and how our Lord could hear what was going formal judgment held in the morning. The on round the fire in the court, as some similarity of the things said at the two Commentators have done. But even were hearings may be accounted for by rememsuch an enquiry necessary, I see no diffi- bering that they were both more or less culty in answering it. The anathemas of formal processes in legal courts, one the Peter, spoken to those who stood by with precognition, the other the decision, at vehemence, and the crowing of the cock, which the things said before would be were not these audible ? But our Lord likely to be nearly repeated. 66. 28 needed not these to attract His attention. Soon as it was day] Sume trace of a meet.

viii. 1.

the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, 67 e Art thou the Christ ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe : 68 and if I [ee also] ask you, ye will not answer me[*, nor let me go]. 69 g 6 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the 8 Heb. 1.8: right hand of the power of God. 70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am. 71 And they said, What need we any further witness ? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth,

XXIII. 1 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. 2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this h fellow a perverting i the nation, a Acts 2v!l.7. and bforbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying that he wil: 37: e render, If thou art the Christ, tell us.

ee omit. 1 omitted by some ancient authorities. 8 read and render, But from this time: or, But henceforth. h not expressed in the original. Better, man. i read, with almost all the most ancient authorities, our.

b see Matt.

xvii. 27 : xxii. 21.

ing of the Sanhedrim after daylight I be

70.7 We find here, and it is worth lieve our Evangelist to have found, see observing, the Son of God used as synonyMatt. xxvii. 1-and to have therefore re mous with the Son of Man sitting on the lated as then happening, the following right hand of the power of God, i.e. with account of what really took place at the the glorified Messiah. On Ye say that former meeting. 67.] First, before I am ..... see note on Matthew, ver. 64. this enquiry, took place the “ witness” re- 71.] How would it have been pos. ferred to in ver. 71 ; and the person who sible that these words should have been said this was the high priest, and with an said, if no witnesshad been brought adjuration, Matthew, ver. 63. The render forward at this examination, and if the ing in the margin is the most natural and very same question had been asked at the correct: If thou art (not if thou be) the termination of the former one ? Christ, tell us. The others, •Tell us CHAP. XXIII. 1-5.] HE IS ACCUSED whether thou be the Christ ;' and, 'Art BEFORE PILATE. Matt. xxvii. 2, 11-14. thou the Christ ? tell us,' are forced and Mark xv. 1-5. John xviii. 28–38. Our unusual renderings of the original.

account, not entering at length into the 68.] I believe these words to have been words said, gives a particular and original said as a formal protest on the part of our narrative of the things transacted at this Lord against the spirit and tendency of interview. 2.] This charge was in. the question asked Him, before He gives tended to represent the result of their an answer to it: and as such, they form previous judginent, we found ;-whereas, an original and most valuable feature in in fact, no such matter had been before the report.— It is with no view to examine them : but they falsely allege it before and believe, that you ask this question: Pilate, knowing that it was the point on nor, were I to attempt to educe from your which his judgment was likely to be most own mouths my innocence, would you severe. The words themselves which they answer Me (or release Me). I am well use are not so false, as the spirit, and imaware of the intention of this question: pression which they convey. The forbidBUT (Matthew, ver. 64) the time is come ding to give tribute to Cæsar was, howfor the confession to be made :-Hence- ever, false entirely (see ch. xx. 22 ff.); and forth &c. 69.] On henceforth, see is just one of those instances where those notes on Matthew. The words “sit on who are determined to effect their purthe right hand of powerare common to pose by falsehood, do so, in spite of the all Three : only St. Luke adds of God.fact having been precisely the contrary to

ech. iii. 1.




o 1 Tim. vi. 18. himself is Christ a King. 3c And Pilate asked him,

saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered

him and said, Thou sayest it. 4 Then said Pilate to the d 1 Pet. ti. 22. chief priests and to the i people, d I find no fault in this

man. 5 And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all k Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. 6 When Pilate heard [1 of Galilee), he asked whether the man were a Galilæan. 7 And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto e Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time. 8 And when

Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad : forf he was & Matt. xiv. 1. desirous to see him of a long season, because & he had heard

[m many things] of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. 9 Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing. 10 And the

k in the original, Judæa. 1 omitted by some ancient authorities.

m omitted by many most ancient authorities. that which they assert. 3.] This Him, finding no fault in Him.

5. question is related in all four Gospels. Possibly they thought of the matter menBut in John the answer is widely different tioned "ch. xiii. 1, in introducing Galilee from the distinct affirmation in the other into their charge. The opening words may three, amounting perhaps to it in sub- mean, they strengthened, redoubled, the stance—at all events affirming that He charge- or perhaps, they became urgent, was a King', which was the form of their they were the more fierce, as in text. charge. I believe therefore that the Three 6-12.] HE IS SENT TO HEROD, AND give merely the general import of the Lord's BY HIM RETURNED TO PILATE. Pecuanswer, which Št. John relates in full. It liar to Luke; see remarks on ver. 12. is hardly possible, if Jesus had affirmed the Pilate, conscious that he must either do fact so strongly and barely as the Three the duty of an upright judge and offend relate it, that Pilate should have made the the Jews, or sacrifice his duty to his popuavowal in ver. 4-which St. John com- larity, first attempts to get rid of the pletely explains. 4.] The preceding matter altogether by sending his prisoner question had been asked within the præ- to Herod, on occasion of this word Galilee. torium-a fact which our Narrator does not This was Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee adduce,-representing the whole as a con- and Peræa (see ch. iii. 1 and note on Matt. tinuous conversation in presence of the xiv. 1), who had come up to keep the feast. Jews; see John, ver. 38. We may remark

7. he sent) or remitted him, to (and on this see Matthew, ver. 18: Mark, Herod. Grotius observes that this was the ver. 10) that Pilate must have known well regular practice among the Romans, to rea that a man who had really done that, mit a criminal to the ruler or judge of the whereof Jesus was accused, would be no district in which his crime was alleged to such object of hatred to the Sanhedrim. have been committed.

8, 9.7 The This knowledge was doubtless accompanied reason of our Lord's silence is sufficiently (as the above-cited verses imply) with a shewn, in the account of Herod's feelings previous acquaintance with some of the at seeing Him. He would not use His dis. sayings and doings of Jesus, from which courses or His miracles for liberating Him. Pilate had probably formed his own opi. self from death, any more than He did for nion that He was no such King as His ostentation, or to gratify the curiosity of foes would represent Him. This is now men. 10.] The accusations, of worldly confirmed by His own words (as related by kingship and of blasphemy, would probably St. John); and Pilate wishes to dismiss be here united, as Herod was a Jew, and

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